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Role Of Digital Tools For Learning Mathematics In Secondary Education In India
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Introduction

The incorporation of technology in the classrooms is the most important shift that the education systems in the world are undergoing currently. It is this shift that is both presenting a lot of opportunities and creating a lot of challenges for the education systems. This is especially true of the Indian secondary school system which is highly diversified, complex and resource-constrained with varying levels of regional development and pose unique challenges to educational equity and quality.

The coming of the interactive digital tools brings a new paradigm of education in which mathematics is learned and taught, the latter implying increased engagement, accessibility, and effectiveness (Nartiningrum and Nugroho, 2020). Nevertheless, this change also means the need for curriculum analysis, the role and teacher performance, and the educational methods that are considered good or effective in the new reality.

The present report scrutinizes the use of interactive digital tools in Indian secondary schools, giving the curriculum development, teachers professionalism and pedagogical innovation as the main emphasis. It discusses the ways in which these technologies can be used to further student learning and participation, the issues that teachers encounter when they want to incorporate them into the curriculum, and the role played by curriculum theory and professional practices in the digital era.

Therefore, the paper intends to offer a thoughtful consideration of the circumstances in which the introduction of digital media is beneficial in the classroom, taking into account the curriculum design, teacher training, and the concept of 'good teaching' in a rapidly changing educational environment.

Literature Review

This literature review examines the state of research in educational digital tools, with a special focus on mathematics teaching methods used for Indian students. This review based on collated information from both India and the rest of the world takes these studies one by one.

As Danielson (2011) points out in his Framework for Teaching, the creation of an interactive classroom that allows for the personalization of learning is consistent with the use of digital tools in mathematics education. The framework's concentration on the content knowledge ability and pedagogy, curriculum design and implementation, and assessment in instruction emphasize on the benefits and challenges of digital tools in making curriculum content relevant and effective.

The in-depth model of a classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS) by Pianta et al. (2008) provides a framework to analyze the interaction between the teachers and children that is stimulated by digital tools.

This model emphasizes the fact that the triad of instructional support, classroom organization, and emotional support plays a very crucial role in forming an ideal learning environment. In this way digital tool integration leads to a rethinking of pedagogical approaches and eventually supports the need for training that equips teachers with the skills necessary for navigation of the new educational terrain.

Rosenshine’s (2011) Principles of Instruction which stresses on clear, structured and well-paced instruction with the aid of digital tools, demonstrate the power of digital tools in teaching mathematics. Students and teachers can make use of the digital tools by means of providing the strategies to introduce the new material, have practice and feedback.

In this way, the principles of Rosenshine bring to light the central role of the digital tools in the education system that supports the effective teaching practices and curriculum goals.

As Singh (2021) notes, digital tools are increasingly embedded in India's bodies of learning. Furthermore, he points to the government's work on digital literacy. And that many urban schools are all digital, using such tools as instructional applications and interactive whiteboards.

Naik et al. (2021) report rapid progress in digital tools used both in metropolitan classrooms as well as the outdoor environment of rural areas. For instance, by allowing more people in the countryside to get online through its 'Digital India' campaign, they note that the government has made good on one of its goals for narrowing the digital divide.

Das (2019) emphasises on digital tools for teaching math. Das says that the main findings in his study of South Indian schools are that mathematical simulation software and Internet problem-solving platforms have all been very effective at increasing students' understanding of, and interest in, challenging ideas.

Lavidas et al. (2022) extends Das' conclusions based on data collected from institutions of higher education in North India. They found that employing digital tools enhanced students' engagement and performance on the math exams, particularly in algebra and geometry.

Rana et al. (2022) looked at the current state of technology in the classrooms of Indian schools and how it compares with trends internationally.

Schools in India are embracing technology at a faster rate than in nations like Finland or South Korea, but they are still left behind. Babbar and Gupta (2022) feel these differences are due to infrastructural differences, differences in teacher preparation, and differences in public support.

This was something they put forward as a model for India to follow. They praised the instructors thorough training, and the relationships formed between educational institutions and technology firms.

All in all, research on technology in Indian classrooms paints a complex, hopeful picture, particularly on the subject of technology as it relates to math instruction. While of course these tools could be used to further student learning and encourage students' interest, they also have their fair share of problems-training and access. 

Current State of Mathematics Education in India

The state of mathematics education in India has come to a critical point of change, with traditional teaching approaches now being complemented by the use of digital tools. This change requires a reshaping of the curriculum to facilitate the emergence of these new approaches and their dissemination.

The use of digital instruments also compels teachers to apply their teaching styles to the new environment and be ready to attend professional development courses on a regular basis to ensure pedagogical effectiveness (Marinelli et al., 2021). That is, 'good' teaching has now become a combination of the traditional and digital teaching methods, where the learning process is now more interactive, engaging, and personalized for students.

This metamorphosis brings about the change in the existing curriculum standards and teacher roles, thus underlining the need for curriculum reform to keep pace with the digital world and professional training of the teachers accordingly.

Overview of Secondary Mathematics Curriculum: The Indian Ministry of Education intends to transform mathematics teaching in the country with a draft National Curriculum Framework for School teaching (NCF-SE) 2023 (Barman, 2023). The focus is altering from rote to interactive learning, seeking to expand students' imagination and appreciation of mathematics beauty and creativity.

The curriculum is meant to bring together mathematical concepts and real-life problems by making use of the students' own language and actual experiences. In order to encourage more participation, efforts are made to dispel the social stigma and fear of mathematics by interactive methods of games, activities and debates. Highlighting Indian contributions to mathematics, the NCF-SE also emphasizes its developmental history.

As part of the curriculum reform, there is now greater integration of technology in mathematics classrooms. The New Enjoying Mathematics series and other new curricular materials centre on the National Teaching Policy and the latest developments in mathematics teaching (Nag Chowdhuri, 2022).

Today, this means adding essential capabilities in the modern world to the teaching of mathematics, including communication, creativity, critical thinking and cooperation.

In order to give children a more balanced, interesting mathematical education, the curriculum explicitly specifies the learning outcomes, adds questions that elicit higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), includes project ideas that relate the practical application of mathematics to real-world situations, and incorporates interactive activities.

These alterations reflect an endeavour to make mathematics education more accessible and high-quality in India, with the overarching goal of making the curriculum more engaging, dynamic, and accessible to all students.

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Interactive Digital Tools: Types and Applications

Digital interactive tools, from educational applications to virtual simulations and online platforms, give rise to multiple ways of improving math teaching. Diverging from the conventional curricula standards, they promote new, self-paced learning models with a shift in teaching methods. This transition not only compels teachers to adopt new skills in the related technologies but also demands them to reconstruct their pedagogical approaches to fit these instruments in their lessons.

The partnership or clash between the tools and existing curricula reflects the importance of a general training and professional development programs for teachers. This is one of the major responsibilities of these programs. They should be both technical and pedagogical based which will help in tool implementation and the use of technology to improve learning outcomes.

Digital Tools Used in Mathematics Education

Apps for Arithmetic Operations: Elementary school pupils wanting to improve their counting, adding, and subtracting will find Moose Math and Happy Numbers both excellent choices (Outhwaite et al., 2022). For example, in Moose arithmetic, kids can build a Moose village when playing arithmetic games or gathering points. Happy Numbers uses a dinosaur character to make arithmetic study both fun and attractive, and breaks down equations to explain higher-order math concepts.

Game-Based Learning Platforms: Prodigy is a popular free game-based website, for instance (DODANGODA, 2023). On it, students are transformed into wizards who kill monsters with maths as their weapons. It is a platform for game-based learning. This platform is invaluable for solving the problems of maths education, which helps students to strengthen their weakest areas and follow their growth.

Web-Based Programs: Zearn is an adapted version of Eureka Maths that students can move through at their own pace online (Foster, 2023). It starts with exercises to warm up and moves on to video lessons and questions. By the time students leave, they should have maths pretty much mastered.

Simulation Tools: Student graphing calculator Desmos is a no-charge resource that gives students tools to better understand and grasp mathematical concepts (Paskins, 2023). The site offers interactive math exercises. Teachers can also create their own new kinds of exercises to put different learning elements into maths lessons.

Applications in Indian Schools

At some Indian schools, such as Chennai's MCTM School, online resources are increasingly becoming part of the curriculum (Gothwal et al., 2022). Teachers receive specialised training on how to apply these resources to assessment, group projects, and lesson preparation.

For instance, teachers at MCTM School make use of digital tools such as PowerPoint slideshows and other forms of presentation software in their lesson plans so that pupils can more easily understand and remember abstruse ideas.

Yet, at the same time, there are still obstacles that need to be overcome before digital resources can be used on a large scale in Indian classrooms. Critical hurdles include insufficient infrastructure, a lack of digital literacy and teachers' reluctance to use digital means (Chama, 2023).

But the data analytics afforded by these digital implements allow teachers to track and improve student performance.

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Impact Analysis

The use of digital technologies in the mathematics curriculum has demonstrated a range of effects in regard to curriculum effectiveness, quality of teaching, and professional standards. With some instances being extremely successful in helping to raise student engagement and understanding but other cases revealing inadequacies in teacher readiness and curriculum alignment.

Digital tools have a great advantage in the sense that they can make the curriculum more effective through the provision of a variety of interactive content that can suit all learning styles (Okoye et al., 2023). On the other hand, the efficacy of the teaching tools in improving the teaching quality largely depends on the teachers' capacity to use them properly in their teaching methods.

The professional development programs are accordingly significant but they are also not able in most cases to give teachers the required skills and pedagogical strategies. The lack of consistency raises concerns about the conformity to the concept of good teaching, which include clarity, engagement, and feedback—all these being possible through digital tools, but only when teachers know how to employ them efficiently and innovatively.

The application of interactive digital technologies has greatly enhanced student engagement in mathematics (Attard and Holmes, 2020). In a subject that is often considered difficult, these methods turn the ideas of mathematics into something that can be approached and found interesting. Example: Prodigy and other game-based learning platforms transform traditional math problems into fantasy land settings, where pupils dedicate themselves to finding answers.

This gamification technique turns out to stimulate student interest in mathematics lessons and their involvement. And adaptive learning technology has also improved students 'understanding and mastery of mathematics. These tools help to customize course materials to fit the needs and learning styles of individual students. For a subject as complex and cumulative as mathematics, these tools provide a tailored learning experience. This is essential.

Digital technologies are now turning the traditional mathematics education on its head, since mathematics education has long suffered the criticism that it labors under a rigidly theoretical and abstract approach (Lo and Hew, 2021). Multi- media presentations, interactive problem- solving exercises and virtual simulations are among the teaching aids in current lessons. As a result, pupils can more easily visualize and understand abstract mathematical concepts, and the learning process is more vivid and interesting.

Websites like Khan Academy and Zearn provide kids fun, comprehensive mathematics education that matches up with the school course. The platform's video lessons, practice problems, and real-time comments can be a boon for teachers as well as students.

In a classroom with highly advanced technology, the function of the maths teacher is transformed from that of the principal information provider to that of facilitator or guide (Cevikbas and Kaiser, 2022).

Now it is the task of educators to help students properly utilize the digital materials, while at the same time providing an environment that is not only conducive to solo work, but to group work as well. There is a need to provide teachers with professional development to help them adapt to this change and to successfully integrate technology into their classrooms.

India's LEAD School is one school that has incorporated smart classrooms into its teacher training programmes (Saini and Goel, 2019). These programmes aim to have educators being able to use digital tools effectively in the classroom and to stay on top of trends in digital literacy. Basics of the course include a tech-friendly learning environment, continuous professional development, and understanding of technology in order to use it effectively in the classroom.

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Challenges and Limitations

The advent of interactive digital technologies has transformed the way mathematics is taught, but it has also established obstacles and constraints. Obstacles presented by accessibility and equity, technology and infrastructure, and pedagogy all stand in the way.

Technological and Infrastructural Challenges: Technology is the more visible of the two problems-technological problems and infrastructure. There is a tremendous digital divide in many areas, especially in developing nations like India (Rana et al., 2022). There is a huge difference in the degree to which critical technical infrastructure is accessible and obtainable such as stable internet connections and modern, operable equipment.

Even the most basic technology for using the digital tools available to them may be unavailable to schools and students in low-income and rural settings. This situation is much exacerbated by power interruptions and slow internet speeds, which prevent teachers from making full use of the benefits of digital resources.

Technology evolves very quickly, and hardware and software might go out of date which requires constant reinvestment to stay current. The constant need to upgrade technology is an enormous burden on schools, many of which may be operating on tight budgets as it is.

Pedagogical Challenges: Digital technologies require a radical rethinking of traditional pedagogy. That, too, comes with its own set of challenges. If conventional wisdom and digitally enhanced learning are going to coexist in peace, then a re-assessment of pedagogical methods and lesson plans may be necessary (Gupta, 2022).

In fact, having subject matter expertise is of no avail if a teacher cannot integrate effective technology into the classroom. This dual expectation can be especially daunting for educators, who may not be conversant with or comfortable using digital tools.

Thus, professional development opportunities for teachers are not only needed, but are often missing. The proper use of digital tools and their effective application into the curriculum should be the focus of training programs. Another problem is how to ensure that these training programmes keep up with the most advanced technological thinking.

Accessibility and Equity Concerns: Accessibility and equity are among the most important concerns when it comes to incorporating digital technologies into the classroom (Pittman et al., 2021). These resources should be available to all, but if only some students have them, educational injustice might Increase.

Technology is not distributed to all students in an equal way. This phenomenon is especially noticeable for students from lower-income classes as well as in the circumstances of students from remote or rural regions. This unequal situation in fact is creating a further gulf between the individuals who possess college degrees and those who do not have them.

The issue is that the platforms, especially the ones restricting those with physical disabilities, are not accessible to all (Haleem et al., 2022). Regardless of their background, seeing students being able to use and benefit with educational technologies and materials is everyone's goal.

Though the problems and discrepancies of the use of digital tools to teach mathematics exist, the aspects of quality instruction and professional learning of teachers are affected. The main barriers are the lack of the appropriate infrastructure, absence of teachers' trainings in digital tools, and a curriculum that doesn't bring or make use of the entire range of opportunities of technology-supported learning.

Digital resources still encounter challenges which become the barrier to their integration into the teaching practice as such limiting the quality of education. Furthermore, a provision of the comprehensive professional development programs that deal with both the technological and pedagogical aspects of digital tools adoption by teachers is another barrier to the teacher professionalism.

The teachers have to overcome these problems with few resources and it can lead to unproductive utilization of digital materials and missed chances for pedagogical innovations. Addressing these challenges is vital to make sure that the digital tool integration brings a benefit to the educational experience, not a distraction, supporting both curriculum goals and professional development in teaching.

Case Studies 

Success Story: Government Schools in Kerala

Education-wise, beyond its 93.91 % literacy rate, Kerala is known as a pioneer in the use of digital tools for mathematics teaching in its public schools (Joseph and Thomas, 2021). One of the reasons for its success is the state's Public Education Rejuvenation Mission. This ambitious plan involved supplying schools with cutting-edge digital gear including laptops, cameras, and projectors.

Thanks to these innovations, mathematics classes became much more interesting and interactive for students.

Another extremely important programme was the General Education Protection Mission, which also helped make this achievement possible. Better learning outcomes in public schools were achieved by focusing on this goal, which improved students' maths and other subject performance. Starting with pre-primary education and ending with higher secondary, this across-the-board approach to education saw the children grow up having a smooth educational track, and set them on the road to success.

An outstanding achievement of these programmes is the dramatic increase in the number of students enrolled in public schools (Joseph and Thomas, 2021). Technological application and emphasis on providing a high standard of education have proved popular, taking pressure off private schools and extending the high standard to all sectors. Moreover, Kerala's students perform exceptionally well in school compared to other states.

Challenge and Overcoming: Rural Schools in Uttar Pradesh

The injection of technology into the classroom is easier said than done, however, especially in the field of mathematics. Successes in rural Uttar Pradesh have been encouraging.

In these regions, initial gaps in infrastructural facilities like lack of computer and internet connectivity also delayed the application of digital education (Sharma and Joshi, 2021). An additional problem was the reluctance to accept new technology which is typical of places where traditional methods of instruction have long been in place.

Several attempts have been made to solve these problems. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and government programmes have been important to the smooth transition to online education.

To solve the problem, some have turned to mobile phone-based learning and offline digital content, which are better suited to places with spotty internet (Sahu and Samantaray, 2022). This approach was possible because digital education tools have been able to reach more people in more remote areas.

As well, attempts have been made to hunger the digital tools. As the teachers are the ones who lead students through the learning process, it is necessary that they learn how to use digital technologies in order to integrate them into their classes.

To build a bridge over the educational outcome gap in Uttar Pradesh, IIT Kanpur also set up an 'Online Rural Education Initiative' (OREI) (The Times of India, 2023). The core of this effort, providing good education to children in remote areas, is smart classrooms, where students and instructors at the institute can communicate in real time in both directions.

The programme, which focuses on assisting children in rural areas grasp the material, uses the NCERT syllabus and colloquial Hindi The OREI will have a major impact on closing the achievement gap and raising standards of education for children in the rural areas of Uttar Pradesh.

Now these initiatives have spurred the spread and integration of digital tools in education. Student participation and the stimulation of problem-solving ability, particularly in mathematics, have been enhanced. The good effect of these projects in rural Uttar Pradesh is that they have all pushed society towards a change towards the use of digital education.

Success through Collaboration: Delhi Public Schools

The Delhi Public Schools (DPS) is a chain of private schools with a high reputation in India. DPS has teamed up with several international education digital companies to reinvent math education (Chettri, 2023). As a result of their combined efforts, a ground-breaking educational project has emerged: a learning platform designed specifically for mathematics education.

The key is the innovative use of adaptive learning technology, which tailors the learning process to each student's individual requirements. Better comprehension of mathematical ideas, because students can work at their own rate through the lessons (Sahu et al., 2020). The utilization of simulations and problem-solving exercises is an interactive learning method that helps make mathematics interesting. The instant feedback given by the platform allows students to correct their mistakes in real-time, which greatly enhances the learning effect.

This new method of teaching mathematics in Delhi Public Schools has really helped. Owing to the platform's flexibility and interactivity, students' analytical and critical thinking abilities have appreciably improved (Chettri, 2023). The most remarkable development is that students 'performance on maths exams has improved greatly. In particular, the platform has helped to raise the quality of mathematics instruction within the DPS. Indeed, the sharp rise in student achievements attests to this fact.

Inclusive Approach: Schools in Bangalore

Many schools in Bangalore are forward thinking with respect to math education, treating all students equally and using desirable technical facilities (Kumar, 2022). These schools are now dedicated to helping students of all different learning styles to excel in mathematics. Thanks to the use of such assistive technologies as screen readers and voice-to-text software, students with disabilities now have more chances than ever.

In the case of teaching mathematics, assistive technology has been revolutionary. Thanks to screen readers, visually impaired students are able to use digital versions of mathematical content that includes textbooks and other online resources (Outhwaite et al., 2021).

Screen readers (speech output devices) allow students to work out mathematical topics on a computer and can also convert math symbols and equations into speech.

Voice-to-text software, which gives students the opportunity to think aloud in math class and have what they say appear on screen, makes the experience even better (Dheva Rajan and Fajlul Kareem, 2019). It dispels the physical impediments to expressing mathematical ideas, so it is especially useful for kids who can't move around very well or have poor handwriting.

But through this inclusive educational approach, there is more involved than bringing the students with special needs up to speed on math. To make the classroom a more sympathetic, inclusive, and friendly place, all students are encouraged to teach and learn from each other. It helps to create a united and integrated environment. 

Grassroots Innovation: Tribal Schools in Odisha

Innovation in digital learning has become the most powerful and revolutionary force in Odisha's tribal districts. Teachers in such communities have jumped to the plate to produce free or low-cost online materials for math instruction in the students' own languages (Vijayanti, 2022). This new approach of overcoming linguistic barriers has yielded encouraging results. It has helped make mathematics seem less remote and forbidding and more accessible.

Its main advantage over most other efforts is its ability to overcome the language barrier, which often hinders sound teaching. Making digital tools and content available in local languages has opened a new door to the mathematics comprehension and application of students. With the learning method becoming more inclusive and sensitive to culture, tribal children can find a sense of connection to mathematics that pertains to their lives.

This grassroots initiative has far-reaching effects beyond simply raising academic performance (Vijayanti, 2022). Math isn't easy for most students, but this programme gives children from aboriginal areas the ability and self-assurance they need to succeed. Because through the educational process they recognize their language and culture, students develop a feeling of cultural identity and pride.

In addition, this programme could serve as a model for other disadvantaged communities in the state of Odisha and beyond. It emphasises how technology can democratise access to high-quality education. It also stresses the need to consider local knowledge and context in the development of effective education programs.

These case studies from various parts of India show that digital tools can be used to greatly enhance the teaching of secondary school mathematics. The situation is hopeful overall, although there are some problems, mainly with infrastructure and accessibility. With the development of digital resources, teachers have new methods of instructing and students find mathematics more interesting and accessible. These, taken together, are stories of victory in Odisha, inventiveness at the grassroots in Uttar Pradesh, and success in Kerala, Delhi and Bangalore. They all go to show that digital tools can truly transform India's mathematics education.

Recommendations

To address the gaps identified in curriculum design, teacher professionalism, and pedagogical practices through the integration of digital tools in mathematics education, the following recommendations are proposed:

Curriculum Reform: Redesign mathematics curriculum to incorporate digital literacy and computational thinking, thus, making them two of the key skills. This reform must as well make sure that the curriculum is not only responsive but also creative enough in using the many affordances of digital tools to maximize learning outcomes (Paskins, 2023).

Integrating digital tools in the curriculum support not only the contemporary learning objectives and educational goals but also students’ academic needs.

Professional Development Programs: Construct and deliver in-depth professional development courses for educators centering on both technology and pedagogy, which are integrating digital tools with teaching procedures.

These courses should be provided with practical training in the most recent digital systems, as well as effective teaching strategies that apply to such technology (Gupta, 2022).

The programs that will be used to put emphasis on continuous learning and adaptation can create for teachers an environment where they can get used to digital tools and in turn enhance their professionalism and quality of teaching.

Pedagogical Innovation Support: Create a supporter network for teachers to use and develop new pedagogical practices using digital resources. Such an endeavour may be comprised of the formation of professional learning communities, library access to digital tools, and opportunity for teachers to share their best practices and obstacles they face (Barman, 2023). Pedagogical renovation by promoting it can make teaching more effective and enjoyable which in turn create better learning environments for students.

Infrastructure Investment: Bolster the financial support for school technology, which should cater for the needs of both teachers and learners, and provide them with reliable and high-quality digital tools (Okoye et al., 2023).

This covers both hardware and software and also fast internet connection and technical assistance. Adequate infrastructure is a prerequisite to the optimal use of digital tools in education and for training new teaching methods.

Research and Evaluation: Carry out regular research and appraisal to see how digital tool integration is affecting teaching and learning achievement (Sancar et al., 2021). The study should cover how digital tools impact student engagement, understanding, and grade performance in math, as well as what effect it has on the teaching practices and the effectiveness of the curriculum.

As a result, these findings can help inform future reforms to the curriculum, professional development and pedagogy based on research evidence to ensure that the use of digital tools in teaching mathematics is in line with the educational objectives.

Conclusion

The digital tools integration in the Indian mathematics education system is a huge transformation which will lead to more meaningful learning experiences, better accessibility, more interactive sessions. This transition is a double-edged sword that brings along chances as well as challenges.

On the downside, the computers, internet programs, and game-based platforms that are digital devices are great in motivating students to learn mathematics. These inventions bring forward new ways of learning making teachers to be in charge of facilitators who direct students on using digital tools productively.

Yet, this change in the educational landscape further underlines the importance of specialized teacher preparation and professional growth. The teachers should not only be able to apply the digital tools but also they should know how to use the pedagogical approaches in a way that integrates these tools in the teaching.

Apart from this, the transition to digital tools as a whole entails broader issues such as the question of technological accessibility and the changes in teaching methods, and the problem of equity. Overcoming these challenges is key to capitalizing fully on digital tools in math education.

Digital tools undoubtedly have a great role including the improvement of mathematics education, nevertheless, better ways to address the current challenges are still necessary to achieve full potential. Thus, some of the ways to implement these changes are through investing in infrastructure, providing broad teacher training, and providing all students with equal access to technology.

Herewith, a learning environment that is more interactive, inclusive, and responsive to the needs of the next generation of students in a technology-driven society can be developed.

One of the most notable contributions of this report is the identification of the newly established draft of the National Curriculum Framework for School Teaching, which has been introduced in India in 2023. The main concentration of this new paradigm is related to an altering approach towards interactive learning, which is intended to extend the imagination and appreciation of Indian secondary students towards the innovativeness of mathematics.

The intention behind this form of curriculum development can be linked with bringing collaboration between different concepts associated with mathematics and real-life situations by enabling students to utilise their own experiences.

Hence, it is clear that there is a significant function of interactive digital instruments that can be used for mathematics learning for secondary school students in India to comply with the newly developed curriculum. Considering the explanation provided by Smith (2000) and the newly established draft of the NCF-SE, it can be said this curriculum has been following the approach of curriculum as a process. 

Essentially, it is required to be comprehended that curriculum is a series of documents to be incorporated within educational settings and a way of looking into the theory of curriculum is to perceive it as a process. In this regard, the curriculum turns out not to be a physical aspect but instead interactions between pupils and teachers regarding knowledge (Smith, 2000).

The process approach towards curriculum enables continual interaction between the concerned two groups regarding knowledge and from the perspective of the new NCF-SE curriculum of India where interactive digital tools render a vital role in supporting the learning mechanism of the students, it can be said that the process curriculum approach is the ideal approach that should be contemplated by teachers into their practice for using interactive digital tools in line with mathematical curriculum to improve the learning of secondary students in India. 

Furthermore, as the process approach of the curriculum seems to be the way this new Indian NCF-SE has been developed, from the provision of teaching practices, it can be articulated that the ideal teaching practice in this approach would involve the teaching entering a specific secondary school setting with the capability of thinking critically, comprehension of their function and expectation from others to engage in interactive sessions through digital tools, a proposal to take initiatives that are based on vital principles and traits of the educational experience.

By following this guidance, teachers in secondary education can foster conversations with and amongst students in the circumstance, enabling students to think and take appropriate actions. Besides, teachers should be continually evaluating the procedure to facilitate desired outcomes in terms of learning mathematics.

Finally, to accommodate the best setting to include digital interactive tools in mathematics learning, as per the teachers' standards, an educator must establish enhanced expectations that foster and challenge the students through new imaginative procedures, demonstrate the appropriate curriculum and subject understanding with expertise in using interactive digital instruments, while also guaranteeing that the ethos of the educational institution is upheld (Teachers' standards, 2021).

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