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Orica Factory Chemical Leak Response Plan
  • 4

  • Course Code: pubh7028
  • University: Western Sydney University
  • Country: Australia


In this task, students will be provided a scenario in which a disaster has just occurred.  The student is placed in charge of managing the disaster response and must act swiftly to develop a  response plan that implements the relevant response procedures for the stakeholders involved.  

Students must approach the disaster using the ' Whole Community Approach' and, therefore, must also develop creative solutions which will provide optimal outcomes for community members and stakeholders.

This task provides students with a hypothetical scenario to which they have to respond quickly and thoughtfully to ensure the best health outcomes for those concerned by writing a disaster response plan.  

The disaster response plan must be informed or guided by current and relevant disaster response literature (scholarly and grey), policies and procedures in place for the location of the disaster event in order to achieve optimal outcomes for all stakeholders and affected population groups. 

A comprehensive disaster response plan should:
•    Provide a critical analysis of the disaster even
•    Identify all relevant stakeholders with a detailed description of their role within the disaster response plan
•    Provide for appropriate management of resources
•    Consider factors that may impact the disaster response plan including, but not limited to, vulnerable groups, animal welfare and environmental factors
•    Provide a plan for managing the psychological stressors of a disaster event for those affected, including any response personnel
•    Provide evidence from current and relevant disaster response literature (scholarly and grey), policies and procedures to support all areas of the disaster response plan to ensure the response strategy is in accordance with best practice approaches.

Marking Criteria

•    Critical analysis of the disaster scenario
•    Content of the response plan including the appropriateness of the proposed response and depth of content
•    Report Format
•    Academic writing
•    APA 7th Referencing

Scenario2: Chemical Disaster 

Executive summary

The Orica Factory Chemical Leak Response Plan (the Plan) builds upon and refines the factory's existing safety protocols, especially in the light of the recent ammonium nitrate leak incident. The primary objective of the Plan is to raise awareness about chemical hazards, rectify potential misconceptions related to chemical leaks, and ensure the well-being of all stakeholders involved.

The Plan elucidates the nature and implications of chemical leaks, especially concerning ammonium nitrate. It further delineates the role of key stakeholders, such as the factory management, local hospitals, governmental bodies, and the community at large, in responding to such incidents.

Upon meticulous analysis of the incident's ramifications and potential hazards, the Plan identifies five key focal areas:

•    Immediate containment and medical intervention
•    Environmental safeguards, including air and water quality monitoring
•    Effective communication and community awareness initiatives
•    Augmentation of factory safety measures
•    Psychological support for affected individuals

For each focal area, a comprehensive action plan has been crafted, guiding the factory's future endeavours in chemical safety and disaster response. A collaborative approach, involving both the factory management and external entities such as local governmental agencies, is deemed essential.

The Plan underscores the significance of partnerships, particularly with health institutions and environmental agencies, ensuring a coordinated response to similar contingencies.

The anticipated outcomes of this Plan encompass:

•    Swift containment of chemical leaks
•    Enhanced environmental monitoring mechanisms
•    Community trust and awareness regarding chemical safety
•    Strengthened safety protocols within the factory premises
•    Robust psychological support mechanisms for affected individuals

With the implementation of the Plan, the Orica factory aims to pioneer advancements in industrial safety, ensuring that the well-being of its workers and the surrounding community remains paramount.

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The Orica factory, situated near Newcastle, NSW, stands as a pivotal cornerstone in the global mining industry, serving as one of the world's preeminent providers of commercial explosives. Within its diverse chemical portfolio, the factory produces ammonium nitrate, a white crystalline substance, which, despite its primary use in fertilisers and explosives, presents an odourless and colourless profile.

Recently, the factory faced an alarming predicament when a leak of this very substance was identified. Given the potential hazards associated with prolonged exposure to concentrated ammonium nitrate, particularly respiratory irritations, the ramifications of such a leak can be grave. This report, therefore, sets out with the objective of delineating a comprehensive disaster response plan.

For clarity, 'ammonium nitrate' refers to the odourless chemical compound utilised in explosives (Babrauskas & Leggett, 2020), while 'disaster response' denotes the systematic approach to mitigate the aftermath of unforeseen calamitous events (Abdel-Basset et al., 2020). Figure 1 given below demonstrates the process of production of ammonium nitrate production that was carried out in this factory.

Ammonium nitrate production

Figure 1: Ammonium nitration production
(Source: learner

Disaster Response Plan

Critical Analysis of the Disaster Event

In the early hours at the Orica factory, an unforeseen predicament transpired which could have jeopardised not only the facility but also the surrounding community. The discovery of the leak, given the odourless and colourless nature of ammonium nitrate, posed an immediate challenge. Although regular checks are instituted within the factory's protocols, the exact duration for which the leak had been occurring remains shrouded in uncertainty.

This enigma exacerbates the gravity of the situation, as it renders any immediate estimation of the leaked quantity or its dispersion range, rather nebulous. When one delves into the annals of disaster literature, particularly those centred around chemical leaks, it becomes palpably evident that rapid response and containment are paramount (Balachandar, 2021).

According to Yue et al. (2023), the invisibility of certain chemicals, like ammonium nitrate, can potentially mask the true extent of a disaster, leading to underestimations and inadequate response measures. Furthermore, Yoo and Choi (2019) has elucidated that early detection systems, combined with comprehensive training of personnel, can play a pivotal role in mitigating the adverse impacts of such incidents.

In light of the aforementioned literature, it becomes imperative for facilities like the Orica factory to not only bolster their detection mechanisms but also to continually apprise and train their workforce in best-practice protocols, ensuring a swift and effective response to any future contingencies.

Identification of Stakeholders and their Roles

Stakeholders Roles
Orica Factory Management and Workers - Immediate response to the leak
- Coordination of containment efforts
- Leak mitigation
Local Hospitals - Medical treatment for affected individuals
- Data reporting on health impacts
Local Government & Disaster Response Agencies - Coordination of relief and response efforts
- Dissemination of public advisories
- Long-term mitigation strategies
Surrounding Community - Adherence to evacuation or safety advisories
- Participation in community-led preparedness initiatives


Table 1: Stakeholder Identification
(Source: learner)

Foremost among the stakeholders is the Orica factory's management and its workforce. Their immediate role encompasses swift response measures, coordinated efforts to stem the leak, and containment of the already leaked substance. Given their intimate knowledge of the facility and its operations, they are uniquely positioned to provide critical insights into the leak's genesis, potential propagation, and immediate mitigation strategies.

Local hospitals, given the symptomatic manifestations observed among the workers, play an indispensable role in this matrix (Bandi & Fellah, 2021). Their immediate responsibility revolves around the provision of medical treatment to the affected. Moreover, their role extends to data reporting, ensuring that the magnitude of health impacts is accurately gauged, thereby guiding further interventions.

The local government, in conjunction with disaster response agencies, shoulders a multi-faceted responsibility (Shmueli et al., 2021). Their role not only encompasses the immediate coordination of relief efforts but also the dissemination of public advisories, ensuring that the community remains informed and prepared. Furthermore, they are entrusted with the onus of long-term mitigation, ensuring that similar incidents are forestalled in the future.

Lastly, the surrounding community, who are potential victims of the leak, play a proactive role (Kim et al., 2020). Their responsibilities range from heeding evacuation advisories, if issued, to engaging in community-led initiatives that bolster preparedness and resilience against such unforeseen events in the future.

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Management of Resources

In confronting the exigencies of a chemical leak, as witnessed at the Orica factory, the judicious allocation of resources becomes paramount. Immediate containment and cleanup necessitate the swift deployment of specialised equipment and personnel, ensuring that the spread of the leaked substance is curtailed and the environment restored to its pristine state.

This imperative, rooted in the precepts of disaster management literature, underscores the need for factories to maintain a reserve of such resources or to have swift access to them through external partnerships (Zheng et al., 2021).

Simultaneously, the medical exigencies arising from the incident cannot be overlooked. Local hospitals must be furnished with the requisite medical resources, ranging from respiratory aids to specialised treatments, to cater to the affected workers and community members.

This provision ensures timely medical intervention, mitigating long-term health impacts. Furthermore, the role of communication in such crises is pivotal (Liu et al, 2021). Harnessing diverse communication channels, from local radio stations to digital platforms, facilitates the dissemination of crucial advisories, guiding the public's response. 

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Factors Impacting The Disaster Response Plan

The meticulous crafting of a disaster response plan, particularly in the context of the Orica factory incident, must take into account multifarious factors that can potentially exacerbate the situation. Among the most pivotal are the vulnerable groups within the community.

Children, with their developing respiratory systems, the elderly, who may already grapple with compromised health, and those with pre-existing conditions, stand at heightened risk in the face of chemical exposure (Hou et al., 2020). Their specific needs necessitate tailored interventions and support. Furthermore, the realm of animal welfare cannot be sidestepped.

The potential ramifications on local fauna, especially those in close proximity to the leak site, can be profound, with effects ranging from immediate health impacts to long-term ecological imbalances (Ottinger, 2022).

Concurrently, the broader environmental considerations loom large. The potential contamination of soil, water, and air not only poses immediate threats but also harbours long-term repercussions, impacting agriculture, potable water sources, and overall ecological health.

Incorporating insights from the United Nations' "Disaster Impact Assessment" literature, it becomes evident that a holistic approach, one that considers the intricate interplay of human, animal, and environmental factors, is indispensable in crafting a robust and comprehensive disaster response plan (Shi et al., 2020).

Managing Psychological Stressors

In the aftermath of the Orica factory incident, beyond the palpable physical ramifications, lies a less visible but equally potent challenge: the psychological toll exacted upon those affected. Addressing these psychological stressors emerges as an imperative in the holistic management of the crisis.

Foremost is the need for immediate psychological first aid for the factory workers, many of whom would have been at the epicentre of the incident. This entails not only immediate counselling but also continued support to navigate the trauma and potential long-term psychological ramifications. Such interventions, as posited by Makwana (2019) can be pivotal in mitigating acute distress and fostering adaptive functions post-disasters.

Parallel to this is the necessity of community outreach programs. Given the potential scale of the incident and its ripple effects within the community, programs that address trauma, stress, and anxiety become paramount.

These initiatives, often collaborative ventures involving local mental health professionals and community leaders, serve as a bulwark against widespread psychological afflictions (Misra et al., 2020).

Equally crucial is the well-being of the response personnel. Often on the frontlines and witnessing the immediate aftermath, they too are susceptible to trauma. Ensuring their mental well-being, through debriefing sessions and continuous psychological support, is vital (Makwana, 2019). 


The incident at the Orica factory has underscored the multifaceted challenges posed by unforeseen chemical leaks. From the immediate physical ramifications to the subtler psychological stressors, the event's repercussions are manifold.

This report has delved into the intricacies of each facet, highlighting the roles of diverse stakeholders, the imperatives of resource management, and the nuances of addressing both environmental and psychological impacts. The overarching theme emerging is the paramount importance of a coordinated and comprehensive response.

Such an approach, steeped in foresight and collaboration, stands as the linchpin in minimising damage and ensuring the safety and well-being of all affected entities.


In light of the comprehensive analysis of the Orica factory incident, several recommendations emerge as paramount to ensure the safety and well-being of all stakeholders:

1.  Immediate Action: All factory workers should be evacuated promptly from the site. Following this, comprehensive medical check-ups must be mandated to ascertain and address potential health implications stemming from the exposure (Hou et al., 2021).

2.  Environmental Monitoring: Continuous surveillance of air and water quality within the affected vicinity is imperative. Such measures, as endorsed by the Environmental Protection Agency, ensure timely detection of harmful contaminants and facilitate remedial actions (Thomas et al., 2019).

3.  Community Awareness: Initiatives aimed at educating the local community about the potential effects of ammonium nitrate exposure are crucial. This empowers individuals with knowledge, fostering informed decision-making in the face of potential future incidents (Hu et al., 2020).

4.  Safety Protocols: The factory must augment its existing safety protocols, ensuring stringent adherence and regular reviews. Such measures, aligned with the guidelines set by the International Labour Organisation, can significantly mitigate recurrence risks (Johnston & Cushing, 2020).

5.  Training: Factory workers should undergo regular training sessions focused on emergency response measures. This not only equips them with vital skills but also fosters a culture of preparedness (Liu et al., 2020).

6.  Collaborative Drills: Collaborative emergency response drills, involving the factory, local governmental bodies, and disaster response agencies, are recommended (Shmueli et al., 2021).

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