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Experience Of Young Adults With Mental Health Issue In Uk
  • 2

  • Course Code: LBR7337
  • University: Birmingham City University
  • Country: United Kingdom


This research study focusses on understanding the experience and perception of the young adults dealing with mental health issues who are living in the United Kingdom. There are 3 research objectives on this complete research is based.

These are evaluating the different experiences young adults and adolescents with mental disorder face, in United Kingdom, identifying the role of support system and social perceptions in affecting the well-being of adolescents and young child dealing with mental disorder in UK, and discussing the challenges faced by young adults and adolescents in UK who are dealing with a mental disorder.

The research method is based on identifying qualitative data while performing Systematic Literature review of the published literatures studies that relate with the research aim and objectives. The findings of the study reflect that mental health issues faced by the young adults and adolescent significantly affect their future journey including behaviour with friends, colleagues, family members and also can lead to self-harm in some cases.

Lack of financial stability, poor communication or difficulty in sharing experience with the family members, social stigma for the mental issues, uneasy access of mental health services are some of challenges identified in the study. 

Chapter 1: Introduction 

Rationale for the research topic

High prevalence of mental health disorder is a critical issue in the United Kingdom. According to the House of Common Library UK, each 1 in 6 have experienced at least one common mental disorder such as anxiety or depression (Baker and Kirk-Wade, 2023). This is more critical for young and adolescents.  18% of children from age range 7-16 years and 22% of the adult aged 17-24 years had at least a single mental disorder. Also rate of probable mental disorder raised 25.7% from year 2021 to 2022 (NHS, 2022).

Even after having significant attention for the mental health awareness, there is still considerable gap in UK regarding understanding perception and experience of adolescents and children with mental disorder and implementing necessary actions.  In the last quarter of year 2022, 81% of routine child referrals with mental disorder were seen within four week (Baker and Kirk-Wade, 2023).  

The motivation for researching this topic arises from the need to fully appreciate the particular problems, coping methods, and societal factors that affect people in this population. Knowing their narratives and perspectives is critical for establishing targeted support and intervention systems that cater to their individual needs (Salaheddin, and Mason, 2016), therefore closing the gap in mental health care provision. This study attempts to fill that gap by digging into the real-life experiences and views of teenagers and young adults in the UK suffering with mental health illnesses.

Research Question 

There are 3 research questions which are most prevalent in the context of this topic. These are: 

1. In United Kingdom, what are the different experiences young adults and adolescents with mental disorder face?
2. What is the role of support system and social perceptions in affecting the well-being of adolescents and young child dealing with mental disorder in UK?
3. What are the challenges faced by young adults and adolescents in UK who are dealing with a mental disorder?

These study questions seek to elucidate the complexities of living with mental health issues in adolescents and young adults. Studying their subjective experiences, obstacles in various circumstances, and the impact of society attitudes aims to provide critical insights for improving mental health care, decreasing stigma, and building more welcoming and effective networks of support in the UK.

Justification for the chosen research subject 

Discussing the justification for the selected research subject, young adults and adolescents are the future of any nation or demography and understanding their perception and experience while suffering from mental health disorders is important.

Such mental health conditions in adolescents not only affect the well-being of them but also put severe impact on their future journey both personal and professional (Pitchforth, Viner, and Hargreaves, 2016).

Along with this, this subject evaluation will also provide useful insights regarding the significant challenges posed by the society intentionally or unintentionally to these adolescents. There are several other reasons which may make this research topic more important to consider.  

The cases of mental health illness are raising in United Kingdom, especially in the teens and youth. There is significant impact of the mental health issues in daily life including social connection, educational performance, as well as maintaining quality of life (Thavamani et al., 2019).

Finding the solution for this raising mental issue is important for enhancing health and well-being of UK demographic. Also, it is also important to consider the psychological wellness impact on the social dynamics.

According to Corrigan, Druss, and Perlick (2014), stigma, disinformation, and a lack of community support frequently limit efficient management and treatment of mental health conditions.

Addressing people in this group's life experiences and points of view is vital not only for removing stigma, but also for establishing specialized programs and regulations that represent their lived reality.  Next, economic burden on the government bodies is also a significant challenge here caused by the improper treatment or lack of awareness for the adolescents’ experience and perception which maintain the severeness of their situation (Gulliver, Griffiths, and Christensen, 2012).

According to the UK government report, mental health is the largest disability cause in the UK, even worse than cancer and cardiovascular disease with total 22.8% of burden on healthcare resources (Government of UK, 2017). It put significant impact on healthcare workforce, institutions, government bodies, families and on society too as broad perspective.  

This study contributes greatly to public health discourse by offering light on the experiences, difficulties, coping methods, and society attitudes of this demographic. In their study, Lal, Nguyen, and Theriault (2018) also discussed how the findings of this investigation will inform the establishment of tailored actions, policies, and support structures with the goal of addressing the particular requirements of adolescents and young adults dealing with mental health disorders.

Finally, by including mental health into the larger public health agenda, it is feasible to promote a more flexible, inclusive, and healthy society (Svold et al., 2021). Overall, this understanding of perception and experience of young children and adolescent in UK with mental disorder provide significant understanding of different aspect including social behaviour, challenges, delay in treatment, economic burden, social resilience and perception. 

Justification for Using a Systematic Review as the Preferred Research Method

For this study, systematic literature review is being selected to identify the required data which align with the research aim and objectives. This methodology selection will help in inclusive evaluation of wide range of scholarly articles, qualitative researches, empirical literatures which discuss about the target demographic (McNally, 2021).

A systematic literature review help in synthesising wide range of data while improving the validity of study findings. Because of its intrinsic capacity for a controlled, comprehensive, and rigorous analysis of current literature, a systematic review was chosen as the approach of choice for this investigation.

This research approach is useful in integrating multiple viewpoints, combining findings, and identifying patterns in the field of emotions and views of teenagers and young people in the United Kingdom living with mental health illnesses (Jahan et al., 2016). 

Systematic literature review stick with transparent, predefined and replicable approach. Systematic perspective of this review reduces the chance of any bias as there is specific inclusion and exclusion criteria set in the study. It helps in selecting those studies which are based on that predetermined parameter.  

This method not only improve the credibility and validity of the study but also help other researchers to reuse the process and validating the finding (Techninsche Universitate Berlin, 2020).

Along with this, systematic literature review is able to identify common themes, patterns as well as variation in studies. Using data extraction and synthesis, SLR help in identifying overarching themes as well as sections which describe the perception of young adults and adolescents suffering from mental health disorder.

Also, it will provide more significant understanding of factors which influence their experience. For example, age variation, cultural context, socioeconomic factors and mental health condition. 

Along with this, systematic literature review also helps in reducing the literature gap. A systematic review identifies gaps, discrepancies, and areas requiring more inquiry within the present body of knowledge by methodically evaluating the available literature (Taylor et al., 2014).

This gap identification is crucial because it guides future research efforts by indicating areas that require further in-depth examination or methodological refinement. According to Xiao and Watson (2019), a systematic review's complete synthesis of evidence provides academics, policymakers, and clinicians with a solid basis of knowledge.

The findings of this analysis will help to shape evidence-based practices, actions, and policies in the UK that are targeted to the particular requirements of adolescents and young adults suffering from mental health illnesses. Overall, the selection of systematic literature review as the methodology will certainly strengthen the study while evaluating the data from peer reviewed studies.

Understanding the perception and experience of the mentally disordered adolescents is not practically feasible and also do not sound ethical (Okoli, 2015). Thus, the systematic literature review is more suitable method here.  

Aim and Objectives 

Aim – To understand the perception and experience of the adolescents and young adult with mental disorder living in the United Kingdom 
Objectives – 
•    To evaluate the different experiences young adults and adolescents with mental disorder face, in United Kingdom
•    To identify the role of support system and social perceptions in affecting the well-being of adolescents and young child dealing with mental disorder in UK 
•    To discuss the challenges faced by young adults and adolescents in UK who are dealing with a mental disorder 

Structure of the dissertation

The current research would be undertaken in a structured manner. The research begins with the current chapter, i.e., introduction, which clarifies the base of this work. The next chapter would be literature review, which is the crucial part of this work. It will synthesize the work of different scholars on the research topic.

Chapter 3 will be research methodology, which helps in clarifying the varied approaches adopted by the current researcher in undertaking this research.

This will be followed by the result and discussion chapters, where the former highlights the results of the undertaken literature review, and the latter covers the discussion on key findings of the literature. The last chapter will be that of conclusion, which would effectively present a summary of the research aims and objectives. 

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Chapter 2: Literature Review 

Different experiences young adults and adolescents face due to mental disorder 

Young adults and adolescents dealing with the complexities of mental disorders often face unique situations that affect different aspects of their lives (Rice, Purcell and McGorry, 2018). Pitchforth et al., (2019) explained that adolescents who are undergoing the critical stages of academic and social development may confront challenges such as disturbances in academic performance and strained social connections. The pressure to conform, coupled with academic expectations and the turbulent nature of adolescence, can amplify the effects of mental health issues, potentially impeding educational achievements and disrupting healthy social integration (Schwartz, et al., 2021).

These difficulties have the potential to mould their self-perception and add to a multifaceted interaction between the challenges of mental health and the pursuit of personal and educational objectives. Waite et al., (2021) defined that mental health conditions have a substantial influence on the experiences of young adults and adolescents, moulding their lives in distinctive ways.

However, Pitchforth (2019) focuses on understanding the prevalence, daily hurdles, stigma, accessibility of treatment and support systems to provide effective interventions and supportive frameworks. In the United Kingdom, there are notable variations in mental health prevalence and incidence rates among different age groups (Bell, et. al., 2019).

According to recent findings from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), adolescents commonly demonstrate elevated prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, influenced significantly by academic pressures and social transitions (Cooper, et al., 2021). Approximately, one in every four people in the UK is experiencing mental health problems each year while in England one in every 6 people report experiencing a common mental health problem (Viner, et al., 2019).

Conversely, Becker et al., (2021) mentioned in their report that young adults experience a heightened incidence of mood disorders, potentially associated with the stressors linked to transitioning into adulthood and striving for independence. In 2022, it was estimated that 18.0% of individuals aged 7 to 16 years and 22.0% of those aged 17 to 24 years were likely to experience a mental disorder (Saltzman, Hansel and Bordnick, 2020).

More specifically, among children aged 7 to 16 years, the prevalence rose from 12.1% in 2017 to 16.7% in 2020, indicating an increase from 1 in 9 to 1 in 6 (Becker, et al., 2021). Following this, the rates of probable mental disorders remained consistent from 2020 to 2022, with no notable fluctuations during this timeframe. However, the complexity introduced by the intersectionality of socioeconomic factors underscores the necessity for a nuanced analysis extending beyond age categories to fully grasp the authentic landscape of mental health in the UK. 

Mental health issues have significant impact on the daily life functioning for different age demographic. EI Asam, Samera and Terry (2019) also mentioned in their study that adolescents often deal with challenges in both their social connections as well as academic performance. 

The increasing incidence of mental health concerns in educational settings creates a barrier to academic progress and affects interpersonal bonds at a critical developmental time. Shoshani and Kor (2022), on the other hand, emphasize that young adults experience disruptions in work and the formation of independence. This is due to the difficult effort to handle mental health while balancing professional obligations and social norms (Schwartz et al., 2021).  

Also, the different nature of disruptions focuses on the need for personalized intervention which target specific mental health challenges faced by UK population (different age group). Further, stigma as well as other discrimination related to mental health reflect specific challenges, especially for young adults. 

According to Li et al. (2022), teenagers face judgment from their peers, which affects their ability to socialize. This form of stigma can worsen the difficulties of making connections and developing a sense of community during adolescence. In contrast to the examples above, young adults frequently encounter workplace stigma, which hinders their professional growth (Shoshani and Kor, 2022).

This work-related stigma may limit job possibilities, advertisements, and overall career advancement.  Evaluating and addressing such differences is important for developing anti-stigma campaign which focus on catering social biases in different age group in UK.

Also, Rice, Purcell and McGorry (2018) discussed in their study regarding the treatment accessibility and how young adults face such mental health challenges while having focus on financial constraints, limited insurance cover, parental consent etc.

Study found that young adolescent which face mental health challenges generally encounter more economic barrier while accessing treatment. Mental health services are expensive while considering therapy session, medication costs as well as psychiatric consultation.

Many of the young adult may lack financial resource as well as insurance coverage.  It is not easy for all the young adult to access all the healthcare services considering high cost of therapy session, medication as well as consultation. Also, inadequate insurance coverage can also pose significant hurdle for the young adult in accessing mental health treatment. Young adult, specially those whose coverage transit form their parental insurance may face challenges in accessing all the services.

Along with this, young adult which face mental health challenge often need to deal with consent of their parents, that can be significant barrier in accessing treatment. Many of the mental health service provider required parental acceptance, especially in the case of young adolescent and children. This aspect can deter many of the young children from accessing care as they worry to share their experience with their parents. 

Closing these inequalities necessitates a comprehensive approach that recognizes and tackles barriers particular to each age group, providing equitable availability of mental health treatments in the UK for both young adults and adolescents. The alarming rates of suicide within these age groups highlight the critical need for tailored preventative interventions (Rice et al., 2018).

According to O’Reilly, et al. (2018), such strategies should include different factors which contribute for the successful intervention completion as well as transition to adulthood. Reducing the associated challenges with young adults such as suicidal thoughts require such strategies to be initiated in better way. 

Role of support system and social perceptions in affecting the well-being of adolescents and young child dealing with mental disorder

Mental health wellbeing of young adults is directly linked with effectiveness of support system as well as societal perception for that strategies which shape these encounters (Deighton, et al., 2019). 

Support System 

According to Gurung and Khanal (2020), Support system are important in reducing the challenges associated with mental disorders. Such intervention also promotes the significant impact of family support for the young adult’s resilience. According to Vaportzis, Clausen, and Gow (2017), online social support services can provide an ease of access for the young adult to reach and take assistance compare to the traditional service providers.

Parents support can play an important role in understanding and promoting mental health supporting strategies in adolescents and in young people. This approach not only emphasizes the significance of family relationships, but also the critical role of parental assistance in the development of mental well-being in teenagers (Becker et al., 2021). However, Henderson, Lacko, and Thornicroft (2013) also highlighted the necessity of supporting mental health and well-being of healthcare professionals who witness several negative experiences in their work which can significantly affect their contribution for other.

The importance of these findings stems from the realization that parental support and understanding are critical pillars in developing resilience as well as recovery in young children confronting mental health difficulties (Bell et al., 2019).

Furthermore, Schwartz et al., (2021) emphasized the importance of peer support in the setting of young people by expanding on narratives that demonstrate the significant impact of a supportive social circle to emotions related to belonging and mental health (Poudel, Gurung, and Khanal, 2020).

Social relationship works as protective measure for the challenges linked with mental health disorders (Shoshani and Kor, 2022). Authors also explained in the study that there is significant role of interpersonal relationship as influential factors in highlighting resilience as well as well-being for adolescents. 

Social Perspective 

Perceptions in society have a large impact on how young people and adolescents handle the complicated nature of their psychological well-being (Cusinato et al., 2020). This study graphically depicts how societal stigma exacerbates the difficulties that adolescents dealing with mental health disorders confront. Personal narratives in this study give emotional tales of people who have faced prejudice in educational settings, a traumatic experience that has a direct impact on their general well-being.

Cooper et al. (2021) explored workplace views influencing young adults, presenting narratives that highlight the challenges individuals face in professional settings. The researchers emphasize the significance of resilience in preserving mental health in the face of cultural prejudices.

Overall, these literatures also promote the need of evaluating social perceptions for having better understanding of challenges faced by adolescents who are suffering from mental health issues. According to Becker et al. (2021), there is required to take actions for stigmatisation in education setting as well as fostering an environment which promote mental well-being.

Similarly, Poudel, Gurung, and Khanal (2020) addressed the importance of developing workplace environments that support mental health, recognizing individuals' resilience when confronted with social prejudices in professional domains, particularly in adolescents.

In general, these studies emphasize the need for broad societal adjustments to create conditions that promote, rather than harm the psychological health of teenagers and young adults in the United Kingdom.

Social relationship which includes family connections, friendship as well as large social network work as a supportive factor fort the young adolescent or adult to deal with different challenges linked with mental health disorders. Transition from children to young adult is a highly critical stage which is influenced by different changes such as cognitive, social, and emotional transition. 

Considering the study by Banks and Xu (2020), adult with good social circle live more happy compare to those with large social circle. The strength and nature of interpersonal relationships have a critical influence in shaping teenagers' mental health and resilience during this time. The study by Shoshani and Kor brings into perspective the important significance of relationships in mitigating the negative impacts of mental health challenges.

Adolescents who have good and supportive relationships have higher levels of emotional resilience, coping skills, and general well-being. These beneficial interactions provide emotional support, comprehension, and validation, resulting in an overwhelming feeling of security and belonging.

Better social link led to developing important social as well as emotional skills including better communication, providing empathy as well as conflict resolution. Such skill improves the adolescent’s ability for managing social interaction and also dealing with stressful situation such as lowering the risk of developing and facing different mental health disorder such as anxiety, depression or behavioural issue. 

Intersectionality and Policy Implications 

Intersectionality is known as maintaining a link between social perception and support system. It helps in initiating policies that adequately understand as well as resolve mental health needs of young adolescents. O'Reilly et al. (2018) highlighted the significance of personalized interventions that address this group's different support needs.

By emphasizing experiences from underrepresented populations, the study underlines the vital role of effective cultural support systems. Cultural origins and psychological experience interact to influence the efficacy of community support (Viner et al., 2019).

The complicated link between these variables reflects the importance of policies which cater the needs of young adolescents and adults while considering the cultural environment in which mental health services are most encountered. 

In addition, Loades et al. (2020) found that literature supports the important impact of social image on mental health outcomes. The literature on marginalised group adults reveals the prevalence of inequities as well as the issues that require governmental intervention to control these crucial imbalances (Loades et al., 2020).

The study advocates for a policy strategy that not only adapts to the individual needs of adolescents and young adults, but also to the various cultural contexts in which mental health challenges originate. Essentially, this investigation of intersectionality calls for measures that are not generally applicable, but rather tailored to the complicated intertwining elements that contribute to the mental health of varied persons in the UK.

Challenges faced by young adults and adolescents who are dealing with a mental disorder 

The research done by Dew et al. (2021) mainly focuses on an exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the young people in the UK during the first lockdown. According to the findings, 30.3% of individuals had poor mental health before the lockdown, and 10.8% had participated in self-harm. Young individuals who identified as Black/Black-British had the largest elevated likelihood of having poor mental health.

Coping techniques include behavioural disengagement, self-blame, and drug abuse have been linked to poor mental health (Dew et al., 2021). Three qualitative themes emerged: the use of pre-existing or newly created coping methods, the worsening of mental health problems, and the necessity for help during and following lockdown. 

In contrast authors Helen Cowie and Carrie-Anne Myer, explores that the mental health as well as well-being of children and young people, particularly in the UK by highlighting disparities based on income. The key focus is mainly on the consequences of the quarantine, social distancing measures, as well as the closure of schools on the mental health of the young individuals.

Throughout the COVID-19 crisis, the continuing Co-SPACE Study in England is following the mental health of children and young adults aged 4 to 16. At the time of writing, almost 11,500 parents/caregivers have completed the survey. The study found early signs of increased mental health problems in younger children under lockdown, including emotional, behavioural, and attentional challenges.

Adolescents, on the other hand, reported no change in their own emotional or behavioural issues, indicating potential perception differences between parents and young people (Cowie and Myers, 2021). Notably, the article addresses the pandemic's disproportionate impact on children from low-income homes.

The findings of the Co-SPACE Study reveal higher emotional and attentional issues among children from lower-income households, indicating existing inequities in the mental health implications of poverty. 

Niedzwiedz et al. (2021) also supported this that poor performance in academics, employment, financial stability, lack of social support are some of the challenges which affect the mental health of young individuals.

Study also mentioned that there is high prevalence of these issue in young adult in the post covid environment. The rapid systematic review done by Hards et al. (2022) investigates relationship between loneliness as well as mental health among children and adolescents with the pre-existing mental health problems. The research studies included 1,536 children and young people aged 6 to 23 years who had been diagnosed with mental health illnesses such as social phobia, anxiety, depression, and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder.

The data shows a clear cross-sectional and prospective connection between loneliness, anxiety, and depression in this group (Hards et al., 2022). The review begins by recognising the well-established link among social isolation and increased loneliness in young people, emphasising that loneliness is closely related to deteriorating physical and mental health.

In contrast the qualitative study which is conducted by Newlove-Delgado et al. (2022) explores experiences of General Practitioners (GPs) in the UK regarding young people with an “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” (ADHD) problem transitioning from a child to adult services.

The study takes a qualitative interview technique, conducting semi-structured phone interviews with 14 general practitioners from throughout the UK. ADHD-related difficulties, particularly during the transition from child to adult services, might lead to mental health disorders (Newlove-Delgado et al., 2022). 

Child specific services which provide personalized treatment, awareness knowledge and therapies are responsible for providing support and intervention to the children suffering from ADHD. However, while these individual change from childhood to adulthood phase, they may face difficulty in accessing those services which were designed especially for the children’s. This change can also lead to disruption in care which result in support gap.

Also, adult may face difficulty in accessing appropriate resource as well as regular treatment plan. Newlove-Delgado et al. as well as similar studies findings reflect that transition period of children to young adult is a critical stage where a person with ADHD become more vulnerable for the different mental health challenge.

Lack of specialized service which cater particularly to ADHD needs, limit the understanding among mental health service providers for the ADHD. Transition from childhood to adult age also make shift in responsibility holding from caregiver or parents to self-management. Inappropriate management of self-care can lead to anxiety, stress as well as other potential health disorders. 

Adapting to new locations, managing increasing academic or occupational responsibilities, navigating social connections, and keeping up medication or treatment regimens can all raise the possibility of mental health problems during this shift. Furthermore, the stigma associated with mental health illnesses and ADHD-specific obstacles may contribute to feelings of loneliness, low self-esteem, and an increased risk of acquiring co-occurring mental health issues such as anxiety, depressive disorders, or drug addiction.

Patients and their families might experience stress, worry, and uncertainty as a result of poor transition planning and communication. The study's general practitioners voiced worries about the scarcity and inadequacy of adult ADHD services. 

In UK, the impact of social stigma and beliefs on young adolescents dealing with mental disease is important. Blixen et al. (2020) also mentioned in their study that lack of communication gap which enhance discriminatory attitudes raise challenges for individual from seeking hurdles which can prevent person from obtaining right healthcare access.

Specially person suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder may face stereotype challenges including biased behaviour in educational institutions, workplace and other. Similarly, Memon et al. (2016) also found in their study that high emotional perception of young adults often raises, stabilize, and fall the continuity in their behavioural approaches which make it difficult for the healthcare professional to understand and cure.

The stigma linked to psychosis in the United Kingdom exemplifies Blixen et al.'s point of view. Individuals suffering from psychotic symptoms are frequently subjected to societal bias, with stereotypes producing the impression that they are harmful or not trustworthy (Blixen et al., 2020).  These kinds of situations lead to social marginalisation and make it complicated for young adolescent suffering from mental health issue to be open and share the problem with ease. 

Duraku et al. (2021) use a different approach, highlighting the function of developing narratives and emphasizing the importance of online communities in mitigating the impact of stigma. Various community-led organizations and mental health initiatives in the United Kingdom have attempted to clarify misconceptions and raise awareness.  

Time to transform is a social movement initiated in the United Kingdom which focus on transforming attitudes for mental health by promoting open discussion and also fostering supportive environment. In these initiatives, joined members hare their personal stories as well as disputing myths. Through this, the campaign focus on shifting public perceptions as well as empathy (Duraku et al., 2021).

Further, this kind of campaign can recognize critical role played by social support service in shaping more inclusive as well as supportive environment for the person dealing with mental health challenges. This campaign also increase accessibility for mental health resources such as helpline, counselling service, support groups and to make sure that young adolescents have access for necessary support as well as guidance required. 

"Time to Transform" attempts to build a culture in which adults feel safe seeking help without fear of criticism or bias by establishing an environment that encourages open talks and provides dependable support structures.

It promotes compassion, comprehension, and cooperation across groups, businesses, and institutions, while understanding that mental health is an important component of one's general health and should be managed as accordingly. It reflects that despite presence of biases and challenges, social support services can play an important role in promoting more inclusivity and understanding. 

Literature Gap

Considering the above-mentioned literature information, it is found that there are not such empirical studies which combined all these information related to anxiety disorder, psychosis disorder, or ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). relating to the experiences of young adults and adolescents who are living in the UK.

While numerous studies have looked at particular mental health issues, there is a need for further in-depth research on the intersectionality of socioeconomic variables.

Bridging this research gap would contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the issues confronting this group, guiding targeted interventions as well as policies that address the varied character of mental health in the UK.  

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Chapter 3: Research Methodology 

SPIDER method 

In this study, SPIDER research method is being used to frame the suitable search strategy for the study. Here S represent to Sample, PI to phenomenon of interest, D to design, E to evaluation, and R to research type (Cooke, Smith, and Booth, 2012). The SPIDER framework also includes key elements of review questions in order to standardise the research strategy.

It offers a different aspect to the PICO tool (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome). SPIDER include all aspect of PICO while provide a more significant approach for qualitative research papers. This framework helps in understanding the group of people required to study, topic of the research, different strategies used to gather qualitative data, outcome of the study, and the type of qualitative study such as ethnography, case study, grounded theory, or systematic literature review.  

Search Strategy 

This is the first section of the research which provide an overview of the research method selected for this study. This is desk-based qualitative research where all the data will be gathered from the existing journal articles or peer-reviewed literatures.

The secondary data collection method which only collects data that has already been published will be employed in this study. Systematic literature review (SLR) will be the method utilized to gather and examine this kind of secondary material. This SLR will evaluate data from peer reviewed published literatures which discuss about the mental health aspect in youth. To fill the research gap, published literature articles will be evaluated in this systematic literature review.

Systematic literature review is beneficial in this study as it will help researcher in getting a clear and comprehensive overview of available evidence for a specific topic (Peričić, 2019). Also, this method will highlight the methodological concern in research studies which can also be used for improving this research work.

While performing systematic literature review, some key words which will be used to find the relevant article will be “mental health disorders”, “experience of child with mental health disorder”, “children and mental health”, “Adolescents and young adults”, “mental health disorders in the adolescents”, “mental conditions”, “psychological disorders”, “perception of UK children with mental health issue”, “mental illness”, “Qualitative experience”, “rise of mental disorder in UK adolescents”.

Also, Boolean operators will also be used in the keyword strategy such as (Mental Health Disorders OR Mental Illness OR Psychological Disorders OR Mental Conditions) AND (Adolescents OR Teenagers OR Youth OR Young Adults OR Young People) AND (Qualitative Experiences OR Personal Narratives OR Focus Groups OR Interviews).

Different database which will be selected for acquiring articles include Elsevier, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Directory of open access journal. 

Inclusion and Exclusion criteria 

The systematic literature review strategy is used in the process of collecting secondary data. This technique makes it easier to identify, select, and thoroughly analyse research papers. Its goal is to deal with the study's goals and objectives by conducting a critical analysis of selected papers (Anyan, 2013). The reason behind using systematic literature review is to use literature that is actually suitable for the research topic of this study. 

The main aim of this study is to understand the perception and experience of the adolescents and young adult with mental disorder living in the United Kingdom. considering the vast quantity of literature on this issue, researchers frequently conduct a comprehensive literature review. This strategy aids in choosing only the papers that are relevant to the research objectives.

A PRISMA flowchart (given in Chapter 4) is used to offer an evaluation of the systematic literature review technique. The basic inclusion and exclusion criteria for the current work is stated here under. 

Inclusion criteria 

•    The articles published post 2013 will be included in the study. 
•    Studies conducted in the UK.    
•    Articles in English language. 
•    Peer-reviewed journals, grey literature such as technical reports, web-based guidelines.
•    Setting - Schools, universities, community-based care, outpatient facilities, online communities.    
•    Study design – Qualitative review (Systematic literature review)
•    Original studies, first-hand accounts, case studies.    
•    Participants in the selected articles - Adolescents and young adults aged 13-25 years.    
•    Age range of 13-25, any gender, specific mental health conditions.

Exclusion Criteria 

•    Exclusion criteria include articles published in any other language than English. 
•    Studies published before 2013.
•    Participants without any history or identification of mental health disorders.
•    Individuals outside the age range of 13-25 years.
•    Comorbidities that are not related to mental health, age outside of 13-25 years range.
•    Non-peer-reviewed magazines, blogs, or opinion pieces.

The advantages of obtaining a broad range of knowledge, trustworthy data, and low-cost research will be realized through secondary research (Heaton, 2012). Previous authors' literature papers will be the primary sources of data for this systematic literature review. Further in this dissertation, research methodologies, tools, and tactics will be identified and explained in detail.

Study design 

This study will be based on descriptive method. The researcher will systematically approach to analyse the perception and experience of the adolescents and young adult with mental disorder living in the United Kingdom. Using secondary data, a thorough and accurate description will be analysed.

Through a range of inquiries, this systematic research design aids in the description of the population group and its associated circumstances. The fact that the data is analysed using real, previously collected data from peer-reviewed sources enhances the legitimacy of this research, making the design of the study advantageous (Mallett et al., 2012). As a result, this study will employ a design that is descriptive in nature.

Methodology Selection 

Mono-qualitative method is being used in this study to analyse the data. Discussing the reason behind selecting this method, this method provides more open-ended information (Bernard, 2013).  This technique frequently stresses comprehending depth and richness over mathematical representation or statistics generalizability.

It can be useful in investigating different aspects of individual experiences, social situations, or cultural events that qualitative approaches alone may not represent properly. The qualitative method is more exploratory in nature and will provide more deep insightful information gathered from peer-reviewed journal articles. 

Data Collection

Data collection is described as approach of collecting raw data from various sources which can be analysed for the further systematic literature review investigation. Primary and secondary are two main data collection method used by the researchers (Okoli, 2015). Primary data method helps to collect firsthand data which is fresh and not published yet. This can also be understood as collecting the data for the first time.  

Human engagement, researcher observations, and experiments are all used to obtain information from primary sources. This approach is valued for its precision and applicability (Palinkas et al., 2015). Secondary data collection, on the other hand, entails gathering pre-existing information from sources such as journal papers, books, news stories, websites, and databases. 

The cost-effectiveness time efficiency, organized data, various data accessibility, and dependability are all advantages of this strategy (Clark and Vealé, 2018).  Here, secondary data collection is being selected for this study. As the research topic is broad and there are various research articles or peer reviewed literatures published which have identified certain useful information regarding the impact of overusing online content on mental health and many of them also discuss how online content affect the male and female separately.

However, there is still lack of combining all these information to identify the more specific impact of overusing online content on causing depression in gender context. Thus, combining the findings of these study will play an important role for the researcher to save the time and effort required for primary study.

Also, peer reviewed articles also provide validity of the data source and also evaluating many of the studies at once in order to get more precise finding. The primary purpose of this study is to Explore the Experiences and Perceptions of Adolescents and Young Adults Living with Mental Health Disorders in the United Kingdom.

The topic is also aligned with the healthcare context thus, conducting primary study here will also require various regulatory permission, time, money, and effort. Thus, secondary research is more suitable here to perform and getting the required findings. 

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Data Analysis Method 

Selecting the appropriate research data analysis method, or frequency and approach for the study all depend on the research objectives, aim and questions of the study. Considering these, researchers can better decide which method will play an important role in attaining the most suitable information which can help in attaining the aim of the study (Nassaji, 2015).

There are several data analysis methods being used by the researchers to analysis the data. Some of these are frequency analysis, thematic analysis, and regression analysis. Here, thematic analysis method is being used by the researcher to analysis the data. Thematic analysis approach is the study of different patterns in the data to uncover meaning.

Also, it also includes analysing patterns as well as themes in data set for identifying underlying meaning. This process is also driven by research aim as well as questions thus, it does not become necessary to identify each possible theme in data instead focusing on the key research aspect which can relate with the research questions. 

Although research questions are an important factor in thematic analysis (and almost all analysis methodologies), it's essential to realize that they are not always definite. In this method, all the data will be categorized in different themes considering the objectives of the study (Braun, and Clarke, 2012).

On the basis of these themes, all the gathered data will be analysed while aligning the information with the literature information accessed in the chapter two. Thematic analysis is a technique for detecting, analysing, and reporting patterns or themes in qualitative data.

It entails arranging and interpreting data in a systematic manner, allowing researchers to identify important patterns and insights. It aids in the collection of qualitative data using methods such as interviews, focus groups, and observations.

Furthermore, it aids in the identification of relevant chunks of material (sentences, paragraphs) with tags or codes expressing themes or patterns (Terry et al., 2017). In this method, codes are organized in themes while refining and reviewing them iteratively.

Next, discussing about the philosophy on which the research will be based, there are three main research philosophies used by the researchers. These are positivism, interpretivism, and pragmatism.

Positivism research is based on objectives and work on empirical observation. In these studies, researcher aim for objectivity as well as generalizability of the findings (Park, Konge, and Artino Jr, 2020).

On the other side, pragmatism philosophy includes different aspect of interpretivism and positivism while focusing on importance of relevancy, practicality as well as using different methods to solve problems. 

Here in the study, interpretivism philosophy is being selected. Interpretivism is a study philosophy that focuses on understanding and deciphering the meanings that people ascribe to social phenomena. It implies that what happens is subjective and socially produced, emphasizing the significance of environment and individual viewpoints (Alharahsheh, and Pius, 2020).

Interpretivism philosophy support the aspect that humans are different from physical phenomena since they create meanings. In a scientific context. It frequently coincides with qualitative methodologies that seek to comprehend social or human experiences.

It also recognizes that both investigators and respondents bring biases, attitudes, and perceptions to the research procedure. Next, discussing about the appropriate research approach, inductive and deductive are two most commonly used method (Armat, Assarroudi, and Rad, 2018). Deductive research approach is based on existing theory or hypothesis in which further data is collected to analyse the hypothesis. Here, inductive method will be used in this study. 

By using specific observations or cases, an inductive approach is used to generate theories or generalizations. It progresses from detailed observations to big generalizations or theories. It begins with specific facts or observations, then identifies patterns, concepts, or regularities in the data (Azungah, 2018).

It can also be used to generate hypotheses or ideas based on observable patterns. Following that, it focuses on building broad principles or ideas based on specific facts. Combining these approaches enables a comprehensive and detailed study of the research topic by facilitating a thorough knowledge of subjective experiences, socially integrated meanings, and the creation of insights generated from the data itself.  

Quality Assessment Of The Paper 

Deciding which studies are most relevant for the literature review, all the relevant keywords was used on different data source including Taylor & Francis, Elsevier and other. These types of credible data source automatically enhanced the quality of the selected paper as majority of them are the peer reviewed.

Also, the researcher checked the originality of the literature, adequate reference use, method selection and literature gap to evaluate the quality and credibility of the paper. Also, CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) checklist was also performed to better evaluate the selected literatures’ quality.

These keywords provided different articles from which articles which were presenting different information were excluded from the selection. For example, articles discussing mental health issue but not in the adolescent context or those studies which do not share information in the UK context, articles in any other language than English were excluded from the selection. 

Chapter 4: Result 

Prisma Flow Chart 

prisma flow chart
Source: (Meinck, 2020)

Below is the detail analysis of the steps which reflect how systematic literature review will be performed to gather suitable literature papers. A total of 400 full text articles were accessed from the selected database which related with the keywords defined earlier (“experience of child with mental health disorder”, “perception of UK children with mental health issue”, “children and mental health”, “mental health disorders in the adolescents”, “rise of mental disorder in UK adolescents” etc). The data base use for this literature search includes Elsevier, Science Direct, JSTOR, Scopus, and Directory of open access journal. 

Further, all the articles were full texted. In the second step, articles which miss the relevant information or provide inappropriate articles are being excluded. Total 350 out of 400 articles were being excluded from the study in the second stage. Fourth stage of the systematic literature review is identifying the literature studies which align the most with aim of the study (Seers, 2012).

Further, the articles which suit the most with the aim of the study is the third stage in which only 50 articles were found relevant from which 35 articles were also excluded further considering the inclusion criteria of the study. These 35 articles were either belonged to the other language or older than 2013 or do not discuss in UK context. At the end, 15 studies were selected while considering those studies which discuss in the UK context. 

Systematic Literature Review 

Study Author/Year Study Design Sample Data Analysis Main Findings
Barriers and facilitators to primary care for people with mental health and/or substance use issues: a qualitative study Ross et al. (2015) Semi-structured Interview 85 adults who self-identified as having a serious mental health and/or substance use issue and 17 service providers from various disciplines who worked with this population Thematic Analysis Socioeconomic as well as psychological barriers make it difficult for the individual to access primary care and prioritizing own health care. Further, from provider perspective, knowledge and personal value of the service provider is important factor in providing adequate care to the patient.
Something needs to change’: Mental health experiences of young autistic adults in England Crane et al. (2019) Detailed Interview 21 participants Transcript analysis It is not easy for young autistic people to evaluate their mental health and experiencing high stigma and also facing challenges when accessing different mental health support. 
Qualitative interviewing with vulnerable populations: Individuals’ experiences of participating in suicide and self-harm-based research Biddle et al. 2013 Semi structured qualitative interview N=63 Visual analogue scale measuring An individual is more like to access benefit compare to the challenges when participating. It is not an effective way to overprotecting gate-keeping.
Perceived barriers to accessing mental health services among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities: a qualitative study in Southeast England Memon et al. (2016) Qualitative study in Southeast England 26 Adult from Black and minority ethnic (BME) community Thematic analysis Adult from BME background need more considerable mental health literacy as well as practical support for raising their awareness of mental health and how to deal with stigma.
The Mental Health Effects of the First Two Months of Lockdown during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UK* Banks, and Xu (2020) Longitudinal Interview 17452 responses Indicative empirical analysis The pandemic situation causes higher impact on the young adult as they faced rise in mental health problem which impacted their control for other factors.
Service user interview panels for recruitment to UK child and adolescent
mental health services: A questionnaire study exploring the experiences of
young people, staff and candidates
Allan, and Travers-Hill (2019) Interview (questionnaire format) CAMHS staff Thematic analysis Early childhood experiences put the most significant effect on the young adult’s mental health behaviour.
The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: Findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults Radford et al., (2013) Computer-assisted self-interview 2160 parents, 2275 Childrens and 1761 Young adults Code analysis It is found that children or young adult who experience inadequate treatment from their caregiver or parents are more likely to affected and exposed for other victimization form, higher poly-victimization, higher trauma symptoms, and experiencing non-victimization adversity.
Mental health and health behaviours before and during the initial phase of the COVID-19 lockdown: longitudinal analyses of the UK Household Longitudinal Study Niedzwiedz et al. (2021) Interview 27000 adults Longitudinal analysis There is increase in the psychological distress among young adult during the covid pandemic. 
Lived Experiences of Diagnostic Shifts in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Contexts: a Qualitative Interview Study with Young People and Parents O’Connor, and McNicholas (2020) Narrative Interview Participants included 21 parents (19 female) and 14 young people (8 female, mean age = 14). Thematic analysis Study found that diagnostic changes from children to youth highly affect emotional, social as well as practical challenges.
Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries Lereya et al. (2015) Accessed data from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort Theme based analysis The research result reflects that getting bullied by the parents or peers in childhood put more critical long-term impact on mental health of the young adults.
Framework analysis: a worked example of a study exploring young people’s experiences of depression Parkinson. et al. (2016) Interview 77 young people Thematic analysis The study provides significant insight regarding the experience of young adult dealing with depression and how they made sense of why they become depressed.
Older Adults Perceptions of Technology and Barriers to Interacting with Tablet Computers: A Focus Group Study Vaportzis, Clausen, and Gow (2017) Focus group Study 3 separate focus group Thematic analysis Majority of the participants want to adapt new technology and accessing health information however, lack of guidance, lack of confidence and knowledge are some of the barriers identified.
Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions Deliens et al. (2015) Semi-structured interview 17 male and 29 female university students Inductive Thematic approach Both physical as well as sedentary activities were identified influencing using different factor such as self-discipline, time, convenience etc.
Service user engagement: A co-created interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in young adults McCauley et al., (2017) Semi-structured interview Two separate engagement groups took place at the premises of the service user organizations, between January - February 2014. Thematic analysis Suffering from inadequate or painful experiences is highly associated with the process of mental health recovery.
Long-term dropout from school and work and mental health in young adults in Norway: A qualitative interview-based study Ramsdal, Bergvik, and Wynn (2018), Semi-structured clinical interview 7 former students two to five years after they had dropped out and seven same-aged students in their final year at college in Norway Thematic analysis Former students who either dropped out the collage or those who did not got the job suffer more with mental health problems.

Result interpretation  

Different experiences young adults and adolescents face due to mental disorder 

The systematic literature review finding reflect that loneliness has direct relationship with overusing social media content. Negative childhood events can be mitigated by resilience, peer support, positive coping techniques, and interventions, resulting in improved mental health. Crane et al. (2019) mentioned in their study that majority of the mental health conditions get develop between childhood to adult age (higher prevalence between the age 12-25.

Study also found that young adults are more reluctant for seeking professional support which work here as a barrier for supporting their mental health condition. Also, according to Allan, and Travers-Hill (2019), The majority of mental health conditions that affect adults have their foundation in early experiences. The author also clarified how childhood experiences and memories can have a significant impact on mental health results.

Anxiety, sadness, PTSD, and other mental health conditions can arise as a result of traumatic or inferior experiences during early life. Adversity as a young person causes mental health issues for those who experience it as adults.

A study by Banks and Xu (2020) found that young adults who place more emphasis on the quantity rather than the quality of their social networks feel more alone. Furthermore, knowing the importance of childhood events on adult mental health enables better comprehension and early intervention.

Therapeutic techniques, emotional support, and assistance systems can help people understand and deal with their past experiences, potentially lowering their chance of developing mental health problems.

However, according to Biddle et al. (2013), increase in distressful situation in adult did not necessarily indicate a negative experience. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the different need of adult such as emotional support, therapeutic intervention, and other assistance.

This study also found that in many of the mental health condition such as psychotic illness, early intervention are the most successful solution for curing individual. In Young or adult age, which is the core stage for such disease, needs the treatment most. However, this was a qualitative study which performed approach review method, thus the results validity cannot be assured. 

Role of Support system and social perception for well-being of adolescents as well as young children dealing with mental disorders

According to Radford et al. (2013), Online learning campaigns, strong social support, a close-knit friendship group, and improved family support rank among the most crucial elements for people in managing mental health concerns.  In addition, the ability to access online learning campaigns and mental health information can be crucial in helping adolescents and young adults understand their own behaviour and determine whether they require any kind of assistance.

Additionally, this becomes more crucial in situations where young adults feel uncomfortable discussing their experiences with peers or family. Having strong social support is essential to preserving wellbeing. In difficult circumstances, having supportive friends, family, and the community can help people feel less stressed, feel more emotionally supported, and receive better practical assistance.

Niedzwiedz et al. (2021) study also explains that a support system should consider the psychological toll that anxiety, depression, and all other mental illnesses take in addition to concentrating on a particular disorder.

The study's findings also show a clear link between loneliness and poor health outcomes, such as death. These resources include books with instructional content, self-help assistance, counselling services, and online groups where members offer support and encouragement to one another. Study mentioned the need for better support system for this young population group.

Study found that engaging in significant social interactions, having conversations about past experiences, and finding reliable people who one can trust in can all help elevate one's mood, boost self-esteem, and help manage stress.  The impact of supportive and positive relationships on mental health is significant.

Challenges faced by young adults and adolescents who are dealing with a mental disorder 

Lack of efficiently planned healthcare interventions and lack of coordination among the regulatory bodies are some of the most significant challenges for the organizations. Deliens et al. (2015) discussed in their qualitative study that majority of the mental health care related transitions are not planned efficiently while having lack of coordination. Further, the primary challenge in the base of the mental health care system.

It includes lack of coordination as well as communication among different mental health service providers and community support networks. This led to gap in the mental health care where it is important to adequately communicate and transferred the patient’s ongoing treatment as well medical history records. Furthermore, the accessibility of particular services for various ages may differ.

For example, as people stay away from mental health services for children and adolescents to adult mental health services, there may be an enormous decrease in available resources. This challenging situation do not foster any kind of the help for the people suffering depression disorder and cause mental disorder (Parkinson. et al. 2016).
Also, improper family environment, education, workplace, residence surrounding, and inadequate online environment, all foster significant challenge for the adult suffering from depression situation. There are several challenges faced by adults which deal with negative environment in their childhood. 

A dismissive or stigmatizing environment within their family connections may increase feelings of isolation and impede open communication about mental health, exacerbating the burden of depression. Academic constraints paired with characteristics like lack of concentration or motivation can impair learning and worsen discomfort in educational environments.

Stigma, bias, or insufficient accommodation for mental health issues can create a hostile climate in the workplace, aggravating the difficulties of managing both job responsibilities and depressed symptoms. According to Vaportzis, Clausen, and Gow (2017), Surrounding of the young adult, which include stressful as well as unsupportive home environment can lead to put sever impact on the mental health of individual.  Therefore, online space or technology integration can provide a support for them.  

However, accessing negative content and also lack of access for adequate mental health resource can significantly lead to depressive symptom. To address these issues, diverse solutions are required, such as enhanced mental health awareness and instruction, policy implementation in businesses and educational institutions, support from community networks, and trustworthy online mental health resources.

Creating supportive surroundings in all aspects of life is critical to assisting persons with depression in managing their disease and improving their overall well-being. Further, covid pandemic has also fostered significant challenge for the young adult in curing from depression situation. For example, finding of the study published by Niedzwiedz et al. (2021) reflect that there is high prevalence of mental health issue in the young adult post covid environment.

Post covid, there is substantial impact has found on the mental health of young individual while highlighting prevalence of mental health issue in the young adult. There are several unidentified challenges which affect ed the young individual during the covid environment. Some of these are prolonged social isolation, uncertainty in finance, education as well as employment disruptions, and other. All of these factors significantly affected the mental health of young adults. 

Loss of family members, missed achievements, and abrupt changes in life paths all left lasting emotional imprints that provide sadness and sorrow. Also, depression, anxiety, and many other mental health issues raised among the young adults which affect the intervention. According to Ramsdal, Bergvik, and Wynn (2018), lack of social support is found as important factor for poor academic as well as professional journey of adults which cause the poor mental health situation.

Many young people experienced high isolation as a result of social distancing measures and lockdowns, which amplified emotions of anxiety, depression, and isolation. Financial instability and job market uncertainty caused more tension and anxiety, and changes in education necessitated an immediate transition to online learning, which was not well received while being necessary.

Combining all these challenges, mental health intervention has become more complex for healthcare system as there is potential financial constraints as well as limitation on in-person appointments. There is need to implement multifaceted approach which focus on high awareness, lowering stigma, and increasing access for different mental health care services using both conventional as well as telehealth. It encourages the formation of support networks and the implementation of resilience-building techniques.

Setting priorities for young adults' mental health issues in this post-pandemic scenario is critical, as it provides them with the essential support to negotiate these challenges and establish a basis for their general health as they move ahead in their lives Niedzwiedz et al. (2021). Also, there is increment in the emotional response of the young adult which often stabilize and fall and consequently, make it complicated to understand for the healthcare professionals. 

Overall, findings of these studies reflect that negative experience in the childhood may lead to traumatic behaviour, PTSD, social isolation, anxiety, and increase in stressful situation. Further, lack of inefficiency in planning the healthcare campaign and social stigma associated with mental health are identified as some of the significant challenge here.   

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Chapter 5: Discussion

Key Finding of systematic review 

The above-mentioned systematic literature review of total 15 relevant articles provide several significant information regarding the mental health aspect in the young adolescents. The research result reflects that there are several challenges being faced by the young adults and adolescents while dealing with mental health disorders including lack of awareness regarding services, lack of access, transition challenges from child to adult, family environment and other. 

Critique of findings derived from academic literature 

Considering the literature findings, Lambert, Zixin Li and Wang (2020) found in their study that public health policies are required to be aware of the mental health consequences of disease control measures, particularly in those developed nations where social life disruptions can be more sever.

Also, the study found that possibly since a public health crisis more severely disrupts the social and economic life of younger people, older age groups are much less likely than those between the ages of 18 and 30 to experience loneliness or develop psychiatric disorders. The findings indicate that living with another person and having a job are both important protective factors against loneliness and generalized psychiatric problems.  

Groarke et al. (2020) identified unexpected patterns in loneliness prevalence across age groups, creating a non-linear U-shaped distribution. Their findings found that persons under the age of 25 and those over the age of 65 experienced the highest degrees of loneliness. This U-shaped tendency implies that younger people and older people are more likely to feel lonely than people in other age groups.

Furthermore, the study found a link between depression and feelings of isolation across all age groups, demonstrating that these two characteristics have a persistent relationship regardless of age. This link emphasizes the interconnection of mental health issues and the influence loneliness can have on mental health. Researchers found that unhealthy physical condition was linked with loneliness in adolescents and those in their twenties, whereas this was not in later life stages.

This link help in understanding that young people are at more risk for experience poor physical health burden as well as loneliness that can affect their mental health. Loneliness and lack of social support can be highly stressful experience for the young adolescents.

It can lead them to different factors such as lack of meaningful connection, social isolation, challenges in building meaningful connections and difficulty in maintaining relationship during their transition from childhood to adult. 

Adolescents and young adults are frequently in the process of building identities, managing social circles, and developing independence, which makes them especially vulnerable to feelings of loneliness. When these emotions of loneliness are combined with unhealthy lifestyles, it can compound the difficulties that people in these age categories encounter.

The interaction of physical health problems with loneliness may lead to increased stress, worry, and a sense of isolation, all of which can have a poor impact on mental health outcomes. The study findings of Vaportzis, Clausen, and Gow (2017) also reflect that adult aged (25-40) reflect more emotional form considering their sense of loneliness which is derived from deficits in the quality of social engagement as well as loss of confiding relationships.

It includes death of their partner, partner, or not accessing care of friends.  This kind of incident cause severe mental health issues for the young adults who just got transformed from their children age and is not completely able to face severe implications. It became more severe in the case of loneliness when children or young adult have lack of social support to deal with such situation. 

Next, study result of the Ross et al. (2015), also reflect that it is required to implement adequate intervention as the fast initial treatment process for reducing the psychological burden from adults. It also includes reducing the burden as well as hazard of untreated mental health condition. It enhances the understanding that there is a need to reappraise the formulation of mental health conditions in a new developmental psychiatry which embrace modern life-course approach.

Discussing this from transgender youth perspective, while growing social or familial rejection and difficulties may lead some transgender children to choose to keep quiet about their identity during adolescence, other transgender adolescents as well as adults might not have self-identified as transgender kids or might not have grown up in a setting that allowed for the exploration of gender identity.

Similarly, as Sayal et al. (2018) highlighted that moving from child to adult mental health treatment is a vital stage fraught with particular problems. There is completely different though process and emotional support perspective for children and young adults and need different interventions to deal with.

Because of the inherent differences in training, diagnostic thresholds, and focus areas between both of these areas of mental health services, this transfer is sometimes fraught with difficulty. 

Also, according to Allan, and Travers-Hill (2019), Healthcare professionals, who work under more effective transition policies, have a responsibility to enhance the transition to mental health services for children and adolescents. This includes child psychiatrists and psychologists. Adult mental health services (AMHS) frequently focus autonomy, individual responsibility, and symptom management, whereas child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) prioritize early treatment, family participation, and developmental views.

The change from CAMHS to AMHS can put significant impact on the young individual without a clear pathway for better continued care. Such inadequate changes in care models, and different treatment approach disruptions can lead to critical gap in providing precise support when needed. Also, this transition may coincide with different life changes including completing the education and also starting workplace life which excel the challenges for an individual.  

Similarly, Collishaw (2015) also mentioned in their study that public health interventions are important in reducing the burden of child psychopathology.  In many of the instance, youth or children often face difficulty in reaching to the adequate clinical help.

They also feel difficulty in sharing their emotions and feeling regarding how they are feeling. Thus, adequate government public health intervention can play an important role in favouring adequate public promotions which offer better access to the young adolescent. 

Pierce et al. (2020) and Lereya et al. (2015) studies highlight the complex links among disparities in socioeconomic status, ethnic inequalities, and their substantial influence on mental health across various age groups. Pierce et al.'s study emphasizes the persistence of ethnic and socioeconomic health disparities in adult mental health experience.

Such inadequate disparities often lead in fostering challenging situation for medical care, resources, and other services which somehow raise the mental health cases in all ethnic as well as socioeconomic groups. Similarly, Lereya et al. (2015)'s study highlights the detrimental impact of adult maltreatment or peer bullying on children's mental health.

They found that early childhood abuse or bullying can lead to major consequences such as suicidal ideation and sadness. One of the primary findings of the study was link between early childhood poor experience and further mental health issue such as suicidal thoughts and sadness feeling. These stressful consequences highlight the severeness of the impact of childhood experience that can have on mental well-being.

Study published by Lereya et al. also highlight the critical need of support in the early life stage in order to address and reduce the impact of childhood poor behaviour. In order to prevent children from the taking out childhood experience for the mental health challenges, it is important to have early identification of the issue and providing suitable interventions. 

These various events during the formative years might influence mental health trajectories, which frequently have long-term effects. Both of these research findings point to the persistence of mental health inequities in their lives.  According to Pierce et al. (2020), adverse childhood experience such as maltreatment or bullying also cause challenges for healthcare professionals to deal with the young adults suffering from mental health.  

Adequate understanding of such bullying and maltreatment behaviour that are generally caused by socioeconomic inequality are important in implementing comprehensive interventions. It also helps in making policies which can manage the mental health equity for different population group or age.  

Further, Findings of the Groarke et al. (2020) suggest that supportive interventions to reduce loneliness should prioritise younger people and those with mental health symptoms. Improving emotion regulation and sleep quality and increasing social support may be optimal initial targets to reduce the impact of COVID-19 regulations on mental health outcomes.

Salazar et al. (2015) also mentioned in their study that There is high level of co-occurrence   among three mental health situations including OCD/ODD, ADHD and emotional disorders. Also, it is found that there is a link between ASD presence and parental psychopathology/psychological distress in the young adults.      

Overall, the findings provide useful insights about different experiences young adults as well as adolescents face concerning mental disorders. Also, the role of support system and in providing cure to the affecting children are also being identified including large-scale campaigns activities.  Further, many studies reflected the challenges faced by the adolescents while including the example of transgender adults.  

Overall, considering the above-mentioned evaluation of the findings as well as of the literature study, it can be said that early childhood stigma is among the primary reason which affect the mental health behaviour of adults.

Poor academic performance, anxiety, and feeling of social isolation is found as primary experience of young adults suffering from mental health disorder. Also, the findings reflect that online social support programs or digital mental health campaign play an important role in making it easy for the young adults to access mental health support. 

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Keyword limitation

There are several limitation researchers faced during this systematic literature review. First of all, there was limited keywords being used in the study. Each data base consists of thousands of articles and limited search keyword could not provide access of all the articles. Even, after accessing all the article, it was not feasible to include all the studies. This poses the challenge for the researcher for including the most relevant studies which can help in meeting the objectives of the study. 

Methodolgoy differences 

Also, in many of the studies, there are differences in method used in the research and objectives of the study. This inappropriate methodology selection in those studies was the primary reason researcher did not include those studies for this systematic literature review considering the validity of the study. 


Considering the above-mentioned literature review which present the challenges, experience as well as impact of mental disorder on young adult as well as on adolescent in UK, below are some recommendations for the future researchers, considering research focus, methodology, intervention and other. 

Recommendation for research focus: 

First of all, future researchers are advised to evaluate how individual background and cultural context align with the mental health aspects. Researcher may focus on marginalised group for better discussion. Further, researchers are suggested to carry out longitudinal studies that track the mental health patterns of adolescents and young adults over time, particularly in the post-pandemic era, in order to better comprehend the long-term consequences and shifts in mental health patterns. They should conduct comparative assessments across different socioeconomic categories, ethnicities, and geographies in the United Kingdom to better understand discrepancies and customize treatments accordingly. Researchers may also investigate the problems and limitations in mental health treatments during the shift from child to adult treatment for illnesses such as ADHD, with a focus on healthcare providers' and patients' views.   

Recommendation for Methodology:

Future researchers are advised to combine different methods such as interview with surveys for focus group in order to get better insight regarding lived experience of young adults, perception of the adults and also the adolescents suffering from mental health issues. It will provide them more critical and deep insight regarding the topic. Also, researchers are recommended to select those methods which help them in assessing longitudinal impact of intervention as well as of support system on mental health of individual. Along with this, ethnographic approaches are also a significant approach to understand the daily life aspect of population group which capture grades which cannot be possibly attained by the structured survey. 

Recommendation for intervention framing 

Healthcare organizations and government bodies can consider this finding in order to evaluate the efficiency of anti-stigma campaigns in workplace, digital environment, educational places and other in order to understand change in perception and behaviour of young adolescents. 

They should conduct policy assessments to assess existing policies and their influence on mental health care, identifying gaps and places for improvement, particularly in transitional services and vulnerable groups. They can also create inclusive treatments that target the individual requirements of diverse age groups, ethnic backgrounds, and socioeconomic positions.

It is recommended to government bodies for promoting partnership and collaboration among healthcare providers, psychologists, community organizations, policymakers to promote a holistic understanding regarding mental health challenges. It includes promoting data sharing among healthcare institutes and researchers for making comprehensive dataset which can be used to analyse trends as well as patterns in mental health results.  

Further, it is advised to initiated large awareness campaigns that focus on dealing with social stigma associated with mental health. These initiatives can focus on target workplace, school children, marginalised communities and other while focusing on guiding and sharing information with them while reducing discrimination and promoting supportive environment for accessing help.

Along with this, it is recommended that relevant authorities use preventative efforts to reduce the risk of psychological problems and self-harm among young adults as well as adolescents. This could include early detection programs, school-based mental health examinations, and community-based programs targeted at fostering resilience as well as handling skills.   

Further, as research study and literature findings highlighted the intersectionality of mental health linked with socioeconomic factors thus it is important to utilize research outcomes in order to inform evidence-based policies which aim on addressing biases or differences in accessing mental health care.

Along with this, it is important to providing better peer support and community program which motivate young adolescent to take part in open discussion regarding mental health. It includes framing safe space for sharing the experience and offering peer support that can reduce the isolation feeling and promote belongingness sense. 

Ethical Considerations:

Future researchers are advised to follow guidelines on study ethics while performing research for vulnerable population group. They should assure taking participants permission, anonymity, and other necessary follow ups.

Further study activities that take these recommendations into consideration can significantly assist in acknowledging the complicated issues of mental health among adolescents and young adults in the UK, thus helping in the development of more successful laws and regulations tailored to their specific needs.

Opportunity for future research 

There is a high potential for exploration the mental health aspect for young adolescents in the United Kingdom. First of all, understanding the accessibility, efficacy as well as longitudinal impact of digital mental health interventions Studying the dynamics, scaling, and efficacy of peer support systems in reducing mental health difficulties among young people is also an important topic of research. 

Furthermore, investigating the relationship between neurodiversity and mental health, particularly in illnesses such as ADHD or autism spectrum disorders, could give understanding on the unique challenges experienced by people with neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

Furthermore, investigating the long-term mental health implications of the COVID-19 epidemic, measuring cultural competency in mental health services, and investigating the effect of family dynamics and support systems on the psychological health of young people are important areas that need to be explored.  

Further, discussing other potential research topics, analysing impact of social media usage pattern on mental health results, identifying trauma-related care approaches, exploring difficulties in providing mental health services during adolescence to young adulthood are some of the important topics to perform research (Jurewicz, 2015). 

Further, understanding the workplace environment’s impact on young and adolescent’s mental health as well as identifying strategies for promoting better mental health in treatment facilities can significantly lead to advancing the comprehension as well as supporting system for UK demographic.  Also, researchers can focus their research topic around better understanding economic barrier for mental health treatment. They can explore potential solutions in order to improve affordability as well as accessibility of the mental health care services.

This topic can also focus on young adolescents. Along with this, researchers can also conduct studies to design and implement individualized interventions that address the unique mental health difficulties that different age groups confront. They can investigate creative approaches to addressing occupational stigma, social integration difficulties, and academic performance interruptions in young adults as well as adolescents.

Discussing other research opportunities, researchers can focus on cross-sectional studies which evaluate the link between mental health prevalence rate, socioeconomic factors, disparities among different demographic group and other. This understanding of link between socioeconomic background and mental health challenges can offer better insight regarding tailored intervention as well as unbiased access of mental health care for all. 

Research Implication 

Considering the broad research topic and findings, findings of the study can be implemented in the future in different domains. First of all, governmental as well as other associated bodies may create targeted interventions as well as support system which address specific challenges associated with mental health, especially in adolescents and young adults. It includes considering their societal pressure, specific needs as well as developmental stage. 

They may also use early intervention techniques for educational settings as well as communities to detect and deal with mental health problems as they arise, with the goal of preventing escalation and promoting prompt access to support. In addition, linked government agencies should ensure the affordability and availability of mental health treatments for young people in the UK, considering different socioeconomic situations, cultural preferences, and geographical differences.

These organizations can also integrate mental health support services in educational institutions while promoting a better supportive environment which focus on mental health.  Also, considering the gender-based stigma results and consequences, authorities may focus on fostering comprehensive anti-stigma campaign which aim to reduce societal stigma surrounding mental health in young adults in order to promote acceptance, understanding as well as empathy (Baker and Kirk-Wade, 2023).  

Also, it will help them in promoting mental health education as well as awareness campaigns in workplace, schools and in communities to promote open discussion and also making help seeking easier.

Further, the study emphasizes the critical importance of family and peer support networks in young people's mental health, supporting open communication, comprehension, and a helpful atmosphere at home and among peers.

They can also create community-based psychological projects that provide easily available information, support groups, and events that promote resilience and beneficial results for mental health. 

Chapter 6: Conclusion 

Critical summary  

This is the last chapter of the dissertation which discuss about the summary of the main points covered in the dissertation which align with the research question. It includes the findings of the study in the context of experience and challenges being faced by the young adult as well as by adolescents while dealing with mental health disorder in UK. 

First of all, it is important to consider that findings of the study highlight the adverse impact of loneliness on mental health condition while highlighting that high focus on building the size of the social network instead of quality of the social network raise the high isolation feeling.

Strong support networks that address a broad range of psychological burdens, instead of just specific diseases, have been identified as critical in reducing adverse health effects and even fatality related to mental health concerns.

Following that, the dissertation delves further into the various experiences of adolescents and young people dealing with mental health concerns in the United Kingdom. The systematic assessment of the literature revealed a variety of complexities and nuances, offering light on the distinctive characteristics of these experiences.

It emphasized important elements such as isolation societal attitudes, social networks, and the difficulties of healthcare treatments that have a substantial impact on psychological health.

Next, considering the research question, dissertation also discuss about the challenges as well as impact on mental health faced by the young adolescents and adults. These challenges also highlight changes in healthcare system, poor planned intervention, differences in socioeconomic aspect, as well as distinct challenges faced by marginalised group.

These hurdles significantly affect the mental health result while leading to different health issues such as anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts. These are also more common in transgender young adults and adolescents which face societal stigma. All these literature findings provide useful insight regarding the research question. 

Also, the literature and research findings combinedly help in understanding that mental health landscape in the United Kingdom is complex, especially for young adolescents. Different studies highlighted the challenges faced by young adolescents such as complexity in academic performance, social integration, workplace disruptions, and other considering the mental health. 

According to Li et al. (2022), discrimination and prejudice limit adolescents’ socialization, whereas workplace stigma hinders young adults' professional advancement (Shoshani and Kor, 2022). These difficulties highlight the need for tailored programs that address unique mental health issues in distinct age groups.

Along with this, research findings also reflect about the challenges in accessibility of the mental health interventions such as economic condition and consent of guardian. Limited insurance coverage, complexity in insurance transition with the age shift from children to young adult, and poor communication with family regarding the experience facing are some of the most significant challenges young adolescent faced for accessing the mental health support. This reflects the inadequate healthcare setup for the young adults. 

The requirement for a comprehensive approach that emphasizes personalized preventive measures that meet the unique issues that young adults and adolescents confront is obvious. Initiatives to minimize suicide thoughts among various age groups, as proposed by O'Reilly et al. (2018), necessitate a comprehensive plan that addresses the complexity and barriers unique to each age group, with the goal of achieving equal mental health care access in the UK.

Further, the dissertation makes practical suggestions for future research efforts. It stresses the exploration of cultural contexts, the refinement of research methodology for a thorough knowledge, and the development of treatments customized to varied requirements. It advocates for comprehensive policy evaluations, inclusive therapies, and ethical considerations for those who are at risk, especially teenagers and young adults dealing with mental health issues.

This comprehensive dissertation significantly examines the different experience as well as challenges faced by young adolescents and adults which suffer from mental health disorders. All the systematic literature review articles were selected carefully which provide useful insight in the UK population context.

Also, by describing challenges and impact of those challenges, the research finding provide suitable insight for future research and intervention approach. Dissertation also highlight the need for target intervention, support system, poor healthcare transition as well as comprehensive policy framework for catering the mental health need of young adolescent and adult in UK.

Thus, the finding will work as foundational resource that will guide future researchers in understanding and supporting mental well-being of young adults and adolescents.

Henderson, Lacko, and Thornicroft (2013) also supported this finding and mentioned in their study that large scale programs work efficiently in lowering negative experience of healthcare professionals in order to help them in providing better care to the depression patient. However, it was not a primary study and thematic analysis was performed in the study therefore, the results validity cannot be assured.     

Along with this, research findings also help in understanding that Covid-19 pandemic has significantly affected the young individual in context of poor mental health.  For example, Dew et al. (2021) mentioned that there is rise in mental health cases during the lockdown considering lack of social support, facing stressful environment, witnessing fatalities all around and other.

This becomes more complex for the adults with low-income family, lack of emotional support, as well as attention challenge. Study published by Hards et al. (2022) mentioned that there is strong link between mental health issue and loneliness faced by the young adults. Also, other challenges identified in the study results are relation to gap in healthcare support and resources provided when needed the most, such as for individual suffering from ADHD.

Discussing the result of Marcus J et al. (2016), depression cases are higher in transgender youth which lead more suicidal and self-harm thoughts in the young adults. This was also qualitative study; however, it includes total 654 articles to perform thematic analysis on the findings. Such large sample size authenticates the study findings. Further, the study included the articles from 2011 to 2016, thus it lacks the current up-to-date research findings regarding the topic. 

The findings highlight the essential transition period from children to adulthood, during which mental health problems, especially with regard to ADHD rise. Access to specialist therapies, medication management, and the stigma linked to mental health are all challenges during this shift.

Furthermore, as noticed by Blixen et al. (2020), cultural biases and preconceptions further marginalize persons with mental health difficulties prevent open communication and having access to healthcare.  

Further, it is important to promote interventions such as “Time to Transform” that focus on shifting public perception for accessing care, promote inclusive environment, improve understanding regarding false myths, and lower the barriers which prevent adolescents from accessing mental health support when needed.

This kind of social support services are important in fostering supporting spaces for dealing with mental health issues. Overall, as there are biases and challenges, social support services can significantly serve as catalyst in encouraging inclusivity as well as mental health issue understanding in young adults while focusing on transforming attitudes of the adolescents, peers, healthcare professionals and promoting supporting environment. 


Discussing this research dissertation journey, it provided me an invaluable experience which significantly improved my knowledge, understanding as well as skill regarding the public health context. I have gain better insight regarding the mental health challenges through which young adolescents and young adult suffer in the UK.

As I think on this life-changing trip, I realize how much it has shaped my skills and abilities, providing insights that will surely impact my future work in public health in a variety of ways.

Through an intensive review of scholarly literature, the dissertation process produced a complete grasp of mental health difficulties among adolescents and young adults in the United Kingdom. This adventure improved my capacity for critical and analytical thinking, allowing me to examine and synthesize difficult material from a variety of sources. 

Engaging in in-depth discussions about various research approaches, such as systematic reviews of literature and thematic analysis has expanded my methodological framework.  These skills will help me in future journey while facilitating better evidence-based approach in discussing multifaceted public health challenge. Further, research journey also reflects the importance of empathy as well as understanding in dealing with human aspect for public health.

As the literature finding reflected lived experience of young adult and adolescents which grapple with mental health challenge, it fosters high sensitivity situation for me. This better awareness regarding the human impact of health issue will be important in leading my public health practice and promoting a more significant and person-cantered approach for intervention and policy. Along with technical skills, dissertation also highlight the significance of interdisciplinary collaboration in order to address complex public health issue. 

Mental health issues in adolescents and young adults demand expertise from a variety of professions. This understanding has strengthened my belief in the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and interaction, which will be critical in my future career. Adopting a cross-sector collaborative approach will be critical for devising holistic and successful treatments.

Further, the research finding has also fostered a sense of commitment and responsibility in me for supporting or promoting improved mental health outcomes. Further, findings of this study also improved my understanding regarding how societal, environmental and economic factors are interconnected and can contribute for mental health issue if not managed well. This perspective will help me in my future effort in adequately understanding inclusive as well as public health policy and intervention. 

In the future public health work, I hope to use the expertise and knowledge gained from my dissertation to make a meaningful contribution to mental health programs. I intend to use evidence-based tactics that emphasize diversity, empathy, and collaboration. I hope to do extensive study which informs initiatives and policies focused at addressing the different needs of those who are vulnerable, notably adolescents and young adults dealing with mental health issues, using my expanded analytical skills.

Also, considering the finding, my aim will be supporting comprehensive as well as person-cantered approach for mental health while ensuring that there is equal access of services for everyone and promoting supportive environment.

Here, the research findings also provide me understanding that how healthcare professionals can collaborate with policymakers, community leaders as well as all associated stakeholders to design intervention in order to efficiently address the root cause of mental health differences.

Overall, completing this study was a completely transformative experience for me to improve my knowledge and also equipped me with perspectives which can make a meaningful impact in public health field.

Insight of this study will be important in shaping my future public health practice in order to promote equitable, evidence based as well as inclusive approach for addressing multifaceted challenge of mental health, especially in the context of young adult and adolescents.  

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