The dissertation is an independent piece of research where you take a great deal of responsibility for your own learning.
This process improves your subject expertise, a good preparation for further study and research at postgraduate level and requires you to work independently and methodically in a variety of intellectually demanding contexts.
You are required to write up the outcome of your research in the form of a dissertation which meets the dissertation guidelines and format.
You must submit the whole dissertation as per final version to Turnitin. The Turnitin link will be open from the start of the module and will be disabled on the submission date by the allocated deadline.
For all these reasons, the dissertation can be seen as the culmination of your postgraduate studies. Here you not only demonstrate the intellectual, study, research, and presentation skills that you have developed throughout your MSc degree course, but also create something which is uniquely your own.
Students have the option of doing primary or secondary research. Those students wishing to undertake primary research should consider the dates of the ‘school ethic committee meeting ensuring that you are able to meet the dissertation deadline, if you are not successful at the first round you need to ensure that you have sufficient time to resubmit. It is advisable to discuss your ideas and feasibility of the project in advance with the programme leader and your allocated supervisor.
If you opt for secondary research you are expected to conduct a systematic review, the taught component of the dissertation will assist you with the process of putting this together, with additional advice from your allocated supervisor once you have decided on your area of study.
An essential part of the study that offers a thorough foundation is the methodology chapter. The methodology and approach used to look at how prolonged screen time affects children's visual health in the UK are described in this chapter. An extensive analysis of the body of scholarly literature is used to accomplish this.
In a nutshell the methodology chapter provides a summary of the use of interpretivism as the guiding research philosophy, the deductive approach as the preferred research approach, and the systematic literature review as the research design for examining the effects of excessive screen time on the visual health of children in the UK.
This chapter lays a strong basis for the research project's subsequent phases of data collection, sampling, data analysis, and ethical considerations.
Because it can offer a thorough knowledge of children's subjective experiences and impact on their visual health in relation to usage of screen time, interpretivism was chosen as the research philosophy.
Interpretivism acknowledges the notion that people actively shape their worlds by utilizing their own perspectives and social interactions (Nickerson, 2022). The study explores the complex and various elements of the connection between children's screen use and visual impairments using an interpretative method.
The research issues lend themselves nicely to an interpretive approach since they call for a study of individual perspectives and the environmental factors that impact them. The purpose of this study is to look at the effects of extended screen time on children's visual acuity and any possible effects it may have on their general eye health.
This means going beyond purely statistical connections and looking at the children's experiences, viewpoints, and views. By acknowledging the influence of societal, cultural, and emotional factors on individual perceptions, interpretivism offers an adequate philosophical foundation for investigating subjective components.
Understanding personal experiences and perceptions is a significant focus of interpretivism. The assertion acknowledges that reality is more complex than simple objectivity and is affected by the subjective meanings and interpretations that people give to their own experiences (Nickerson, 2022).
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The justification for using a deductive method in a systematic literature review is that it makes it possible to examine and assess accepted theories and hypotheses within the context of the research questions.
Utilising a logical approach makes it easier to analyse the body of literature already in existence methodically and systematically, starting with general ideas and working toward specific research goals (Pandey, 2019).
By employing this technique, the study aims to add to the evidence about the consequences of extended screen exposure on children's visual health in the United Kingdom.
This study may successfully undertake a thorough analysis and synthesis of the pertinent literature thanks to the establishment of well-defined research queries that are drawn from accepted theories and hypotheses.
This approach enables evaluation of the applicability and validity of accepted theories within the context of the research questions. This method also makes it easier to find gaps, inconsistencies, or other instances of divergence within the corpus of academic works, improving the overall understanding of the subject.
The deductive method acknowledges the significance of earlier research results and theoretical frameworks about how screen usage affects visual health. The study may place its findings within the more considerable academic discussion and identify prospective areas for further research by integrating existing information.
The dependability and soundness of the study findings are enhanced by this technique, which encourages an iterative process of knowledge progress and improvement.
The process for locating and assessing relevant literature to meet the research queries is rigorous and well-organised in the systematic literature review research design used for this study. A systematic literature review is a methodological technique that aims to synthesise the existing knowledge concerning a particular topic area. It is distinguished by its thoroughness and rigour (Xiao and Watson, 2019).
The initial step in conducting a comprehensive and rigorous analysis of relevant scholarly literature is to construct a research question that is clear and free from ambiguity. The researcher selects suitable search phrases and keywords, employing them to meticulously scrutinise diverse academic databases, journals, and other pertinent sources. The obtained documents are evaluated based on predetermined criteria for inclusion and exclusion to determine their relevance to the research topics.
Subsequently, the selected papers undergo a comprehensive analysis and synthesis, commonly employing qualitative methodologies or software, to ascertain significant discoveries, recurring themes, and discernible patterns.
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Data gathering for the literature review comprises selecting and compiling necessary research using a logical and comprehensive manner. The primary goal is to amass a substantial body of academic writing that advances our understanding of how extended screen use affects children's visual health in the United Kingdom.
Researchers use specific criteria for inclusion and exclusion to find relevant studies. The publishing date, language, and geographic focus are just a few examples of the many variables that comprise the inclusion criterion (Pandey and Pandey, 2021). These requirements ensure the research is current, published in English, and particularly pertinent to kids living in the UK.
The present study incorporates a variety of approaches and research strategies to research that explicitly explore the relationship between screen use and visual impairments in children. However, studies that primarily focus on adult populations, studies without empirical support, and studies that do not align with the study questions may all be excluded according to the exclusion criteria.
The research heavily relies on respected scholarly journals and academic databases to gather the necessary data. Popular databases with extensive collections of scientific literature, such as PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, are frequently cited.
The author also aggressively seeks relevant studies that have been disseminated in recognised academic publications with expertise in the areas of child development, eye health, and digital media. By relying on these sources, the research hopes to acquire a comprehensive and exhaustive overview of the existing literature.
Systematic literature reviews frequently use inclusion and exclusion criteria to help choose relevant publications for an in-depth examination. The exclusion criteria list the qualities that studies should not possess to be excluded. In contrast, the inclusion criteria list the characteristics that studies must have to be included in the review.
The research questions in this study act as the standard for selecting which publications to include. This may consist of studies on children in the UK that examined the relationship between excessive screen use and eye strain.
These criteria were set up to ensure that the studies picked would shed light on how extended screen use damaged children's vision in the UK.
On the other hand, the exclusion criteria help to exclude research that does not meet the specific goals of the project. For example, studies that did not focus on the connection between children's screen use and eye strain or those directed at adults would be rejected. These criteria will be applied by the review to the research it chooses to ensure that they are appropriate and contribute to solving the current issues.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria protect the validity and reliability of the systematic literature review. They help to focus the field of potential studies on those most relevant to the current research questions, improving the validity and legitimacy of the findings (Patino and Ferreira, 2018).
By defining these criteria up front, the review maintains clarity and openness by including only studies that provide insightful information about how screen use affects children's eyesight in the UK.
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The data produced from the selected studies must be carefully and methodically examined as part of the systematic literature review. The data is first painstakingly arranged and categorised per the research questions and important themes found in the published literature. The method allows for systematic analysis and synthesis of the findings from diverse investigations (Cox and Cox, 2017).
In order to identify themes and patterns, the author of this study used an inductive coding method. The author methodically goes through the obtained material multiple times to look for any recurring themes, ideas, or events that come up throughout the various investigations.
The identified articles and patterns are then further honed and categorized, considering how pertinent they are to the study topic. The objective is to get a fundamental comprehension of and insights into how excessive screen use affects children's visual health.
When doing a systematic literature review, data analysis is done using qualitative methodologies. These techniques cover a range of methods, including narrative synthesis, content analysis, and theme analysis. The thematic analysis makes it easier to find and explore recurring themes and patterns, providing a thorough and nuanced understanding of the data.
A methodological strategy called data analysis makes it easier to organise and categorise gathered material by established standards or theme patterns. Contrarily, narrative synthesis requires combining findings from several research into a single narrative that clarifies overall themes and designs (Cox and Cox, 2017).
In some circumstances, data analysis and organisation might be facilitated by using software for qualitative data analysis. These software tools make it possible to methodically classify and examine significant volumes of data, which increases the effectiveness and thoroughness of the analysis process. These tools include functions like coding, classification, and visualisation that improve the analysis's rigour and robustness.
When performing a comprehensive literature assessment on the possible consequences of extended screen exposure on the visual health of children living in the United Kingdom, ethical issues are of the utmost relevance. Incorporating ethical concerns into research activities protects participant rights, upholds the integrity of the research process, and upholds the underlying moral values of the academic community (Alderson and Morrow, 2020).
As it upholds openness and raises the credibility of the research endeavour, ensuring adherence to ethical principles is of the utmost importance within the framework of the literature review. The study project should abide by accepted ethical standards, such as informed permission, confidentiality, and anonymity, among others.
Systematic literature reviews, which do not directly involve humans, apply the rules guiding the handling and reporting of existing data. Academic papers that use referenced research do so with due regard for the authors and sources, retaining scholarly integrity (Alderson and Morrow, 2020). To encourage openness and lessen the impact of biases, any possible conflicts of interest are also revealed.
Additionally, the study effort must consider how the results could affect the welfare and confidentiality of children. It is essential to ensure the ethical handling of sensitive information and protect the identity of those participating in research activities. Throughout the whole study process, it is crucial to ensure that children's privacy and dignity are protected.
This chapter examines the impact of extended screen exposure on children's visual health in the United Kingdom. The study uses a systematic technique of literature review that adheres to a deductive research strategy and interpretive research philosophy. Data collection, sample methods, data analysis processes, and ethical issues are all included in the methodology chapter.
To examine children's subjective views and experiences about their use of screens and visual health, the interpretivism research approach has been used. The assertion acknowledges the importance of social interactions and individual viewpoints in determining one's personal experiences.
To explore and assess pre-existing ideas and hypotheses that are pertinent to the study questions, the deductive technique is used. By drawing on existing information, the research aims to perform a thorough analysis and synthesis of the present body of literature.
A complete literature search and evaluation are conducted using the systematic literature review design. The identification and selection of studies based on predetermined criteria is a step in the data-gathering process.
Academic databases and respectable publications are the primary sources used to obtain data. Sampling is done by deliberately choosing research that meets predetermined inclusion criteria, ensuring the relevance and calibre of the included studies.
The discovery and integration of themes and patterns require a disciplined and exacting approach during the data analysis. The analysis makes use of qualitative techniques, particularly topic and content analysis.
The observation of ethical standards, which include ideas like openness, informed consent, confidentiality, and proper source attribution, allows for the successful management of ethical issues. With an emphasis on upholding the ideals of privacy and dignity, various ethical issues relating to the use of preliminary data are examined.
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Alderson, P. and Morrow, V., 2020. The ethics of research with children and young people: A practical handbook. Sage.
Cox, V. and Cox, V., 2017. Exploratory Data Analysis: What Data Do I Have?. Translating Statistics to Make Decisions: A Guide for the Non-Statistician, pp.47-74.
Nickerson, C., 2022. Interpretivism paradigm & research philosophy. Simply Sociology, 5.
Pandey, J., 2019. Deductive approach to content analysis. In Qualitative techniques for workplace data analysis (pp. 145-169). IGI Global.
Pandey, P. and Pandey, M.M., 2021. Research methodology tools and techniques. Bridge Center.
Patino, C.M. and Ferreira, J.C., 2018. Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: definitions and why they matter. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 44, pp.84-84.
Xiao, Y. and Watson, M., 2019. Guidance on conducting a systematic literature review. Journal of planning education and research, 39(1), pp.93-112.
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