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Improve Contraception Education For Women In The UK
  • 11

  • Course Code: LBR7399
  • University: Birmingham City School Of Health Sciences
  • Country: United Kingdom

This assessment addresses the following Module Learning Outcomes:

1. Critically appraise and examine theories, concepts and processes of leadership, with application to today’s challenges in an ever-changing health and healthcare environment.
2. Explore theories and types of change and explain the social, political and economic factors that may influence the process and speed of a pragmatic change, including key ethical and legal issues within the student’s area of study.  
3. Demonstrate an understanding and rigorous application of skills, techniques and planning tools required in working through the steps and phases of project management.
4. Demonstrate abilities and competencies in creating appropriate and unique solutions while managing and working with the challenges of project delivery.
Assessment Task 

Each student enrolled in this module is required to develop and submit a project management proposal primarily addressing a service improvement, resource development, policy change, capacity building or health improvement with reference to leadership practical skills and competencies.

This proposal will ultimately prepare the student within his/her study area to progress to undertaking a Project Management for an MSc Dissertation whilst providing practical change management and leadership skills to inform professional development.     

You are asked to identify a Challenge that you will work on throughout the module toward the summative assessment. A Challenge is an event or situation in a workplace or a catchment area (e.g., community, borough, and constituency) that adversely affects service delivery, patient care, community health and well-being or the safety of a vulnerable population.

Your Challenge should be derived from your discipline or area of study (Public Health, Biomedical Engineering, Professional Practice, Advanced Clinical Practice, Safeguarding, etc.). Your Challenge may be an event or situation in which you were/are involved, one that you witnessed, or one that you have not experienced but which is important to you.  

However, the scope of the selected Challenge must be clear and manageable: its catchment area should be local (e.g., workplace, community, borough or constituency) rather than global (e.g., nation, country, the world). Consider this Challenge as something you may be working to address in your professional life after graduation.

Introduction     

Contraceptive education is crucial for women's reproductive health and family planning, and it has significant personal and societal repercussions. This program aims to give British women access to thorough contraception information and services. The importance of making educated reproductive decisions globally and the ongoing lack of pertinent data make this work more important than ever.

Due to the high prevalence of unplanned births, which have serious health, social, and economic repercussions, there is insufficient access to contraception information. A 2020 ONS poll found that 36% of births in the United Kingdom were unplanned. Therefore, it is vital to enhance contraceptive education.

Unwanted pregnancies may have profound repercussions on a person's life. The prevalence of unwanted births (44% globally), according to the Guttmacher Institute, is linked to increased rates of maternal and newborn death. Unwanted pregnancies tax the nation's healthcare system in addition to impeding British women from achieving their career and educational goals.

Women in their twenties had the highest rate of unwanted pregnancies, according to the ONS (Cameron, et al. 2020). Compared to nations like France (25%) and Germany (31%), whose curriculum incorporate comprehensive sex education, the United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of unwanted pregnancies in Europe (41%).

The Netherlands has one of the lowest teen pregnancy rates in the world because to its intensive sex education programs. Comprehensive education on contraception can aid in lowering the number of unplanned pregnancies. According to study that was published in The Lancet, nations where sexual education was widely available had much lower rates of unplanned pregnancies and abortions.

This effort falls under the scope of public health since it aims to improve women's reproductive health (Cavallaro, et al. 2020). By giving women more access to information on birth control and reducing the incidence of unplanned pregnancies, this effort seeks to lessen the strain on public and private resources.

The worrisome rates of unplanned births and their wide-ranging effects, in conclusion, highlight the urgent need to improve contraceptive education in the United Kingdom. By embracing best practices from throughout the world and lessons gained, this program aims to enable women to make knowledgeable decisions about their reproductive health.

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Project Initiation

Change Process: Lewin's Change Model
Kurt Lewin developed the Lewin Change Model to study and guide social and organizational change. This method's three crucial steps are defrosting, processing, and refreezing (Apanga, et al. 2020). The project's chances of success as well as any potential roadblocks by using Lewin's Change Model to the campaign to improve women's access to contraception education in the UK.

lewins change model 2
Figure 1: Lewin's Change Model
(Source: practicalpie.com, 2023)
 

Unfreezing: People are currently challenging the status quo by isolating and analyzing the driving and inhibiting factors that contribute to the desired change. For this endeavor, a force field analysis was conducted to determine the change drivers and inhibitors. First, individuals must be made aware of the need for change and the consequences of inaction (Mazza, et al. 2020). The effort to educate people about contraception is motivated by the significance of making informed reproductive decisions, as demonstrated by extensive research, global success examples, and health effects. However, a lack of public awareness, cultural resistance, and funding are impeding progress.
Changing: After identifying the factors propelling and inhibiting change, one can take measures to mitigate the former and enhance the latter. Collaboration with medical personnel, the creation of a central online resource for information on various forms of birth control, and the implementation of extensive educational campaigns would all contribute to the achievement of this objective (Plesons, et al. 2019). Innovative resource allocation may aid in overcoming constraints, but cultural resistance may necessitate approaches that are sensitive to the needs of those affected.
Refreezing: The final phase involves making the new policy official. In addition to assuring continuous interaction with healthcare providers and providing comprehensive sex education in schools, this would necessitate the creation of a website dedicated to the contraceptive education initiative (Johansson, et al. 2022). Maintaining the shift over time necessitates constant monitoring, consistent feedback collection, and receptive course modifications.

Table 1: Lewin's Change Model
(Source: Self-created)

Force Field Analysis

To ascertain the driving forces behind the project and its limitations, a force field analysis was performed.

Driving Forces Score Restraining Forces Score
Comprehensive Research 5 Limited Awareness 4
Health Impact 4 Cultural Resistance 3
Global Success Cases 4 Funding Constraints 4
Public Support 3 Inadequate Resources 5
Policy Momentum 4 Educational Barriers 3

Table 2: Force Field Analysis
(Source: Self-created)


Further research was done on the key limiting element known as "Cultural Resistance". It seems that various societies avoid in-depth discussion about contraception due to cultural taboos and customs (Crawford, et al. 2021). Social taboos limit women's liberty by preventing the transmission of appropriate knowledge regarding reproductive health.

The Fishbone Analysis

 fishbone analysis 2
Figure 2: Fishbone Analysis
(Source: Self-created)


An Ishikawa or cause-and-effect diagram known as a "fishbone analysis" was used to look into the causes of the critical limiting factor known as "Cultural Resistance." This report were able to meticulously look into all of the resistance's possible reasons using this image (Lasong, et al. 2020).

In summary Social taboos and reproduction-related concealment were found to be important predictors. The structure of the project may be improved as a result of this research in order to get around the unique cultural obstacles that prevent honest dialogue and well-informed contraceptive decisions.

Goal Statement of Project

By increasing access to knowledge on contraception, women in the UK will be better equipped to make decisions about their reproductive health and fewer unwanted pregnancies will occur.

Objectives of Project

•    To promote awareness from 19% to 56% to ensure that all students and participants in community centres have access to trustworthy, current information on family planning alternatives.
•    To reduce the rates from 87% to 43% to improve contraception education for women in the UK.

Stakeholders 

Beneficiaries:

Women: This initiative aims to empower women by providing them with the information they need to make educated decisions about their reproductive health (Le Guen, et al. 2021). Having access to trustworthy information about reproductive health options enables women to make responsible decisions and assume control over their bodies. With greater education, there will be fewer unintended pregnancies, which will enhance family planning and result in greater well-being overall.
Healthcare Providers: More in-depth training on contraception will equip medical professionals to counsel patients effectively on the subject. This will facilitate more open communication between patients and clinicians regarding contraception and reproductive health-related issues (Lasong, et al. 2020). Therefore, this will improve the quality of care provided and facilitate the development of trustworthy relationships between medical professionals and patients.
Educational Institutions: School-based sex education programs have the potential to improve the physical and mental health of adolescents (Forsyth, et al. 2023). It not only fills an important educational void, but also prepares young people to make informed decisions regarding their reproductive health. Comprehensive sex education is one way universities can aid in the personal development of students.


Table 3: Beneficiaries
(Source: Self-created)


Invested Stakeholders:

Government: The government demonstrates its concern for public health by advocating for increased access to contraception education. When more individuals have access to education, fewer unintended pregnancies benefit public health (French, et al. 2020). The potential savings to the healthcare system should also be considered, as unintended pregnancies are associated with higher medical costs.
Healthcare Organizations: By decreasing the number of unintended pregnancies and the associated costs, improved contraceptive education can reduce the burden on healthcare systems (Schölin, et al. 2021). This not only improves the utilization of existing resources, but also contributes to the public health. Reduced patient burdens and more efficient use of scarce healthcare resources would be advantageous for all parties involved.
NGOs: Cooperation between non-governmental organizations working in the disciplines of reproductive health and education can advance both fields (Mwanangombe, et al. 2020). Participation in programs designed to enhance contraceptive education can assist these groups in raising awareness, disseminating accurate information, and advocating for the expansion and improvement of reproductive health services.


Table 4: Invested Stakeholders
(Source: Self-created)

Anticipated Conflicts and Challenges

Information about contemporary contraceptives may encounter cultural opposition if it interferes with long-standing social norms. When resources are already few in a certain location, a lack of readily available finance may make the situation worse.

The value of cultural sensitivity must be emphasized in an all-encompassing education (Miller, et al. 2020). Collaboration between partners that have different goals might lead to conflicts about the project's scope and direction. A research using the Change Model force field found that the UK needs to enhance its contraception education.

The project's stated aims and goals take into consideration the restricting and accelerating factors that have been determined (Böttcher, et al. 2019). Even if everyone stands to benefit from the effort, it must nevertheless overcome challenges including cultural opposition, a lack of finance, and a lack of teamwork to be successful.

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Project Planning And Feasability 

Without initially doing a detailed study of the project's scope, objectives, resources, and potential barriers, its feasibility cannot be ascertained, nor can a complete strategy for its implementation.

Resources and Expertise Needed

A certain set of skills and equipment are required to do the assignment. A thorough contraceptive education program and accompanying teaching materials must be developed by education experts. Healthcare professionals with considerable expertise and training in delivering accurate and unbiased contraceptive counseling are crucial to the distribution of accurate information to the target audience (Heil, et al. 2019).

Web developers' skills would be a huge asset to the endeavor to offer women looking for contraceptive guidance a straightforward online resource. For the greatest impact and reach, sex education must be created in collaboration with educational institutions (Jafree, et al. 2022). Given that the project covers everything from developing the program's concept to executing it and maintaining it throughout time, having enough funding to see the project through from beginning to end is essential.

Gantt chart 

Major Activity Start Date        End Date
Curriculum Development 1/10/2023        31/12/2023
Healthcare Collaboration 1/11/2023        28/02/2024
Online Platform Development 1/12/2023        31/03/2024
Educational Integration 1/01/2024        30/06/2024
Program Launch 1/07/2024        31/08/2024

                        
Table 5: Gantt chart
(Source: Self-created)


 

Major Activity Start Date End Date Brief Description
Curriculum Development 1/10/2023 31/12/2023 Together, educators, healthcare professionals, and non-governmental organizations are creating comprehensive contraceptive education materials. In these materials, the efficacy, hazards, and benefits of various contraceptive methods will be discussed
Healthcare Collaboration 1/11/2023 28/02/2024 Consulting medical professionals: Through seminars and workshops, physicians and nurses are taught to provide unbiased and accurate information on birth control (Rehnström Loi, et al. 2019). During routine exams, discussing birth control options with medical professionals
Online Platform Development 1/12/2023 31/03/2024 Putting data online in a format that is searchable: Collaborating with developers to create a website that is user-friendly. This guide will offer trustworthy information on various contraceptive methods, including answers to frequently inquired questions and clarifications of common concerns.
Educational Integration 1/01/2024 30/06/2024 Working with schools to incorporate comprehensive sexuality education modules into existing curricula is one method for bringing this topic into classrooms (Paton, et al. 2020). Adapting pedagogical objectives, educating instructors, and revising lesson plans to accommodate the new curriculum
Program Launch 1/07/2024 31/08/2024 It is advantageous to educate students, patients, and the general public about birth control and its alternatives. Promotion of the website through events such as seminars and press releases

Table 6: Description of activities
(Source: Self-created)

Risk Assessment

Risk     Description Association Likelihood Impact Risk score Response
Cultural 
Sensitivity
Resistance due to cultural taboos Cultural High High High Adopt culturally sensitive approach,
engage diverse groups
Funding Shortage Insufficient funds for
program development
Financial Medium High High Pursue grant applications,
seek sponsorships, optimize costs
Stakeholder
conflicts
Differences in objectives among stakeholders Collaborative Medium Medium Medium Facilitate mediation,
establish clear communication channels
Technical glitches Online platform malfunctions Technical Low Medium Low Implement regular maintenance, provide technical support
Educational
integration
Challenges
Resistance from educational institutions Collaborative Medium Medium Medium Engage stakeholders, address concerns, showcase benefits
Change
Management
Staff resistance to new educational methods Human
Resources
Low Medium Low Training, communication, address concerns proactively
 

Table 7: Risk Assessment
(Source: Self-created)

Communication Strategies

Stakeholder Level of Interest Level Of Influence Communication Engagement level
Women High High Clear, accessible information through
online platform: Regular updates on the
online platform, addressing various
contraception methods and related topics
Collaborative workshops:
Engaging women in
workshops to gather
feedback, addressing
concerns, and enhancing
education
Healthcare
Providers
High High Workshops, seminars on accurate counseling: Regular training sessions on providing accurate contraceptive advice. Active involvement: Participation in program planning, offering insights, and continuous engagement in workshops and seminars
Educational
Institutions
Medium Medium Incorporation of sex education in curricula: Periodic updates and progress reports on the integration process Integration within system: Collaborating with educators, participating in training, and incorporating new modules into curricula
Government High High Policy updates, progress reports: Sharing project updates and milestones, emphasizing alignment with public health objectives. Policy advocacy: Collaborating with government officials, advocating for comprehensive sex education policy.
Healthcare
Organisations
Medium High Benefits of improved reproductive health outcomes: Regular communication on the positive impacts of education programs Supportive engagement: Providing resources, participating in educational events, and supporting awareness campaigns
NGOs High Medium Collaborative efforts for reproductive health: Periodic progress updates and joint initiatives.     Joint awareness efforts: Collaborating on events, workshops, and campaigns to raise awareness about reproductive health.

Table 8: Communication Strategies
(Source: Self-created)

Communication and Engagement Plan

Who?(Stakeholder) What?(Communication Content) When?(Timing) How?(Communication Channels)
Women Accessible contraception education information Ongoing Online platform, workshops, webinars
Healthcare Providers Accurate contraceptive counseling Regularly Seminars, newsletters, online resources
Educational Institutions Integration of sex education As curriculum
cycle permits
Meetings, curriculum updates
Government Progress updates, policy alignment Quarterly Reports, policy briefs, meetings
Healthcare Organizations Benefits of reduced healthcare strain As needed Presentations, webinars, collaboration
NGOs Collaborative efforts for reproductive health Regularly Meetings, joint initiatives
 

Table 9: Communication and Engagement Plan
(Source: Self-created)

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING 

Monitoring the status of tasks, resources, and deadlines is crucial during the course of a project's execution in order to ensure that the project is moving toward its goals.

Transition from Planning to Implementation Phase

Following the planning phase, the implementation phase is distinguished by a seamless changeover from conceptual planning to practical implementation. A commencement conference will be convened at this phase to decide the project's scope, approach, and timeline (Jafree, et al. 2022). The group is coming together to clarify everyone's duties and project outputs as well as to build a unified vision. For the first time, all parties concerned will actively work together to put the plan into action.

Implementation and Monitoring Process

The healthcare partnership's actions will be influenced by participatory techniques. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to actively engage in decision-making by being asked for their opinions. With their support, we can improve our methods for distributing reliable contraceptive information.

The Gantt chart will act as a visual roadmap for all project milestones, training sessions, and seminars (Rehnström Loi, et al. 2019). Healthcare providers will be kept up to date on the project's progress and reminded of the importance of their contribution to attaining the project's goals through regular feedback cycles in the communication strategy.

Scenario: Increased Resource Requirement for Online Platform Development

The Gantt chart needs to be updated if more resources are needed to finish developing the online platform. It is possible to control stakeholder expectations by updating the communication strategy to reflect the revised release date (Böttcher, et al. 2019). It's possible that this circumstance calls for a bold leader.

The capacity of the project leader to inspire and encourage the project team and stakeholders is crucial for acquiring the required resources, coordinating everyone's commitment, and guaranteeing the success of the time-consuming construction of the online platform.

Scenario: Risk of Technical Glitches Materializing

A more directive management approach can be required in the event of website technical issues. Adopting forceful steps would be necessary to solve the problems quickly. Stakeholders would be notified about the problem, the steps being taken to remedy it, and any possible effects on the project's timeline through expressly established lines of communication (Miller, et al. 2020).

Technical experts and support staff will be enlisted to create effective fixes for the issues. In conclusion, better communication and teamwork are evident during the shift from planning to implementation. Leaders must act immediately to solve the particular difficulties of a vital undertaking, such as healthcare collaboration (Crawford, et al. 2021).

One may keep track of the project's progress using the Gantt chart and modify the communication plan as required to keep it on time. The likelihood that a leader's initiatives will succeed is higher when the leader is able to modify their ideas and tactics in response to unanticipated challenges.

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Project Evaluation  

 
Objective Expected Outcomes Resources and Information Needed Data Source
Improved Education for Women Increased awareness and knowledge about contraception methods among women Pre and post-education survey data capturing women's knowledge levels. Participation rates in educational workshops and online platform utilization. Surveys, questionnaires
Online platform analytics
Healthcare Provider Collaboration Enhanced competency and confidence in offering accurate contraceptive advice Assessment of healthcare provider knowledge and skills before and after the education program. Assessment results, provider feedback
Online Platform Utilization Accessible information through the online platform Platform usage statistics tracking user engagement. Platform analytics
Curriculum Integration of sex education into school curricula School curriculum evaluations on integration and reception. Curriculum evaluation data
 

Table 10: Project Evaluation  
(Source: Self-created)

Project Assessment

The success of a project in achieving its goals and having the desired impact on its target audience can only be assessed via the assessment phase. The assessment will give a thorough picture of the project's efficacy using quantitative and qualitative data (Cameron, et al. 2020). Before and after the education, we will poll women to see if their opinions or knowledge about contraception have changed.

A comparison of the participants' levels of competence and confidence before and after the training will be used to ascertain the impact of the training sessions on the capacity of healthcare practitioners to interact.

The effectiveness of the online platform will be assessed based on user engagement metrics, and the integration of sex education into the classroom curriculum will be assessed based on student responses to post-integration surveys (Johansson, et al. 2022). These evaluations will throw light on the project's outcomes, enabling a better understanding of its successes and potential improvement areas.

Limitations

Despite the fact that this project is extensive, there are certain limitations that need to be considered. Given the initiative's short lifespan, determining its long-term consequences may be challenging. The eventual outcomes of the project may also be influenced by changes in socioeconomic situations and cultural factors (Cavallaro, et al. 2020).

Data acquired, particularly from surveys and user interaction analytics, may not be accurate due to response biases or technological constraints. It might not be possible to do a complete and in-depth study due to a lack of resources. It is also possible that the initiative won't be able to reach its whole target audience due to financial constraints. These limitations make it necessary to evaluate project outcomes cautiously and with a complete understanding of the project's environment.

Conclusion

A program created to enhance women's education on contraception produced a variety of generalizable results, according to researchers in the United Kingdom. These lessons will aid in the professional development and can be used to future ventures. Through this project, I've learned the value of prior preparation, communication, and adaptable leadership. These aspects might be used to my current role to improve my capacity to contribute to the accomplishment of projects, the involvement of important stakeholders, and their general success.

By imparting the knowledge to the co-workers and partners, one may foster a culture where efficient project management is the standard. The initiative's goals go beyond just disseminating birth control information. All sorts of healthcare projects will be affected by the used tactics, which include collaborative stakeholder involvement, the use of digital technology, and cultural sensitivity.

These recommendations may be used anywhere to complete projects more quickly and effectively. In conclusion, this project's effects go well beyond what is intended. They lay the groundwork necessary for the growth of expert project management abilities, the improvement of team member competencies, and the accomplishment of increasingly challenging objectives in the healthcare and educational sectors.

 

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References

Apanga, P. A., Kumbeni, M. T., Ayamga, E. A., Ulanja, M. B., & Akparibo, R. (2020). Prevalence and factors associated with modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in 20 African countries: a large population-based study. BMJ open, 10(9), e041103. Available at: http:// dx. doi. org/ 10. 1136/ bmjopen- 2020- 041103
Böttcher, B., Abu-El-Noor, M., & Abu-El-Noor, N. (2019). Choices and services related to contraception in the Gaza strip, Palestine: perceptions of service users and providers. BMC Women's Health, 19, 1-8. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0869-0
Cameron, S. T., Glasier, A., McDaid, L., Radley, A., Baraitser, P., Stephenson, J., & Norrie, J. (2020). Use of effective contraception following provision of the progestogen-only pill for women presenting to community pharmacies for emergency contraception (Bridge-It): a pragmatic cluster-randomised crossover trial. The Lancet, 396(10262), 1585-1594. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31785-2
Cavallaro, F. L., Benova, L., Owolabi, O. O., & Ali, M. (2020). A systematic review of the effectiveness of counselling strategies for modern contraceptive methods: what works and what doesn’t?. BMJ sexual & reproductive health, 46(4), 254-269. http:// dx. doi. org/ 10. 1136/ bmjsrh- 2019- 200377 
Crawford, E. E., Atchison, C. J., Ajayi, Y. P., & Doyle, A. M. (2021). Modern contraceptive use among unmarried girls aged 15–19 years in South Western Nigeria: results from a cross-sectional baseline survey for the Adolescent 360 (A360) impact evaluation. Reproductive Health, 18, 1-13. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-01056-w
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Rehnström Loi, U., Otieno, B., Oguttu, M., Gemzell-Danielsson, K., Klingberg-Allvin, M., Faxelid, E., & Makenzius, M. (2019). Abortion and contraceptive use stigma: a cross-sectional study of attitudes and beliefs in secondary school students in western Kenya. Sexual and reproductive health matters, 27(3), 20-31. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/26410397.2019.1652028
Schölin, L., Mukherjee, R. A., Aiton, N., Blackburn, C., Brown, S., Flemming, K. M., ... & Cook, P. A. (2021). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview of current evidence and activities in the UK. Archives of disease in childhood, 106(7), 636-640. Available at: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17083/1/Fetal%20alcohol%20spectrum%20disorders.pdf  [Accessed on 25-08-2023]

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