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Global Public Health Issue Of Diabetes Mellitus Type2
  • 9

  • Course Code: LBR7456
  • University: Birmingham City University
  • Country: United Kingdom

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus type 2, commonly referred to as type 2 diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by elevated blood sugar levels due to the body's resistance to insulin or a deficiency in insulin production.

This ailment, once primarily prevalent in affluent nations, has now witnessed an alarming surge across various regions, transcending boundaries and economic statuses (Gassasse et al., 2017).

As a consequence, it is imperative to address type 2 diabetes from a global health vantage point, not merely as a regional concern, but as a ubiquitous health challenge that demands coordinated, international intervention.

Scope and Scale of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 as a Global Public Health Issue

Globally, diabetes mellitus type 2 has emerged as a formidable public health adversary. Current data suggests that an estimated 463 million adults are living with diabetes, the majority of whom are diagnosed with type 2. This figure is projected to escalate to 700 million by 2045 (Wong et al., 2021).

Such prevalence underlines not just the individual health implications but also the considerable strain on healthcare systems worldwide. The ramifications extend beyond mere morbidity; diabetes-related complications are responsible for 4.2 million deaths annually.

Economically, the global expenditure on diabetes care has exceeded USD 760 billion (Saeedi et al., 2020). It's paramount to discern between 'global' and 'international'.

While 'international' implies concerns shared between two or more countries, 'global' denotes issues that impact the entire planet, signifying that diabetes mellitus type 2 is not just an international challenge but a universal one, demanding collective action.

Effects of Globalisation on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

The inexorable march of globalisation has woven countries tighter, creating a tapestry of interconnectivity and urbanisation. This has inadvertently catalysed profound lifestyle metamorphoses. Sedentary routines, spurred by urban living and digital occupations, have supplanted more active livelihoods.

Concurrently, global trade has burgeoned the accessibility to processed foods, rich in sugars and unhealthy fats, thereby distorting traditional dietary habits and precipitating a surge in diabetes incidence (Gassasse et al., 2017).

Additionally, global media and advertising play a pivotal role, often promulgating calorie-dense foods whilst glamorising them, thereby influencing public perception and consumption patterns.

Such omnipresent media narratives, coupled with the ubiquity of unhealthy food options, collectively sculpt the health behaviours of societies, making them more susceptible to conditions like diabetes mellitus type 2 (Oberlander et al., 2017).

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Global Health Governance Pertaining To Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

In the face of the escalating diabetes epidemic, international health organisations have assumed a pivotal role in orchestrating comprehensive strategies for its prevention and management.

The World Health Organisation, for instance, has promulgated guidelines and frameworks aimed at mitigating the disease's prevalence. These global initiatives, bolstered by policies and resolutions, underscore the imperativeness of early detection, apt treatment, and patient education (Khan et al., 2020).

Concurrently, nations, recognising the borderless nature of this health conundrum, have increasingly engaged in collaborative efforts.

Such synergies, manifesting in shared research, policy alignment, and resource pooling, exemplify the global community's commitment to combating diabetes mellitus type 2 (Luo et al., 2023).

Through this cohesive approach, global health governance seeks to curtail the disease's impact, safeguarding public health on an international scale.

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Factors Influencing Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Its Impact

The proliferation of diabetes mellitus type 2 is a multifaceted phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay of diverse determinants.

a. Social Factors:

The societal milieu, encapsulating aspects such as education, often determines an individual's awareness and comprehension of health risks. Furthermore, deeply entrenched cultural beliefs can either facilitate or impede adherence to healthier lifestyles (Soysa et al).

Peer influence, another paramount factor, frequently moulds dietary choices and activity levels, either exacerbating or mitigating diabetes risk (Kang et al., 2019).

b. Economic Factors:

Economic stratification significantly influences diabetes prevalence. Those in economically disadvantaged echelons often grapple with limited access to quality healthcare, rendering early detection and treatment elusive.

The affordability of treatments is yet another impediment, with many unable to shoulder the financial burden of continuous care (Azadi et al., 2021).

c. Political Factors:

Governmental interventions, or the lack thereof, play a cardinal role. Policies governing healthcare provisions, stringent food and beverage regulations, and public awareness campaigns either fortify or weaken the bulwark against diabetes (Safiri et al., 2022).

d. Environmental Factors:

The inexorable tide of urbanisation has, in many locales, eroded recreational spaces, curtailing opportunities for physical activity. Such environmental constraints, combined with a sedentary urban lifestyle, significantly amplify the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 (Mason et al., 2020).

Conclusion

The growing epidemic of diabetes mellitus type 2, which is affecting people in many different parts of the world, highlights the obvious necessity of international cooperation. This condition, which is moulded by a tapestry of social, economic, political, and environmental threads, requires a strategy that is both comprehensive and diverse.

Single initiatives, regardless of how effective they may be, are not going to be enough. The only way the world has any hope of winning the battle against this ubiquitous health threat is if it combines many methods in a way that maximises their synergy and takes into account all of the elements that contribute to it.

It is a clarion appeal to governments, organisations, and individuals alike to unite, innovate, and act with alacrity in order to defend world health from the clutches of diabetes.

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References

Azadi, M., Kamalipour, A., Vardanjani, H.M., Poustchi, H., Taherifard, E., Sharifi, M.H., Salehi, A. and Mohammadi, Z., (2021). Prevalence, pattern, and correlates of polypharmacy among Iranian Type II diabetic patients: results from pars cohort study. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 24(9), pp.657-664.
Gassasse, Z., Smith, D., Finer, S. and Gallo, V., (2017). Association between urbanisation and type 2 diabetes: an ecological study. BMJ global health, 2(4), p.e000473.
Kang, G.G., Francis, N., Hill, R., Waters, D., Blanchard, C. and Santhakumar, A.B., (2019). Dietary polyphenols and gene expression in molecular pathways associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(1), p.140.
Khan, M.A.B., Hashim, M.J., King, J.K., Govender, R.D., Mustafa, H. and Al Kaabi, J., (2020). Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes–global burden of disease and forecasted trends. Journal of epidemiology and global health, 10(1), p.107.
Luo, X., Sun, J., Pan, H., Zhou, D., Huang, P., Tang, J., Shi, R., Ye, H., Zhao, Y. and Zhang, A., (2023). Establishment and health management application of a prediction model for high-risk complication combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on data mining. Plos one, 18(8), p.e0289749.
Saeedi, P., Salpea, P., Karuranga, S., Petersohn, I., Malanda, B., Gregg, E.W., Unwin, N., Wild, S.H. and Williams, R., (2020). Mortality attributable to diabetes in 20–79 years old adults, 2019 estimates: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 162, p.108086.
Safiri, S., Karamzad, N., Kaufman, J.S., Bell, A.W., Nejadghaderi, S.A., Sullman, M.J., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Collins, G. and Kolahi, A.A., (2022). Prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted-life-years (dalys) due to type 2 diabetes and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: results from the global burden of disease study 2019. Frontiers in endocrinology, 13, p.838027.
Wong, Y.H., Wong, S.H., Wong, X.T., Yap, Q.Y., Yip, K.Y., Wong, L.Z., Chellappan, D.K., Bhattamisra, S.K. and Candasamy, M., (2021). Genetic associated complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Panminerva medica, 64(2), pp.274-288.

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