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Molecular Biology Assignment Help Online

Molecular biology studies the life at the molecular level. In simpler words, molecular biology studies life as a manifestation of interactions of the macro and micro biomolecules.

The 2023 Noble Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Katalin Kariko and Drew Wiesmann for their role in developing the first mRNA vaccines. The key discovery or their contribution was the in-vitro studies on mRNA and dendritic cells.

In-vitro produced mRNA is treated as a foreign body by the dendritic cells and releases certain signalling molecules that initiate the inflammatory responses. Their papers presented in 2008 and 2010 highlighted that the administration of mRNA with bases modified significantly boosted the synthesis of signalling molecules compared to unmodified mRNA. 

Their discovery that the “base-modified mRNA was critical in deciding the inflammatory response of dendritic cells” paved roadways for the development of mRNA vaccines, which were critical in the development of vaccines in a shorter period of time to clutch the pandemic Covid-19.

The example mentioned above is related to the field of Molecular Biology, which signifies the importance of the field as an applied science.

Different Branches of Biology help provided With Our Online Molecular Biology Assignment Help 

In addition to Molecular Biology Assignment Help, we offer help to Australian students in various branchеs of biological science.

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Cell biology probes into the structure and functions of cells. The aspects dealt with in cell biology include organelles, cell organisation and internal processes like division, metabolism, and signalling mechanisms. Know more at “Cell Biology Assignment Help.”

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Study of gеnеs, including their structure, functions, intеractions with proteins, synthesis, sequencing, еvolution, and mapping.Know more at “Genomics Assignment Help.”

What Topics Come Under Molecular Biology?

Molecular Biology is the study of molecular components of the cell, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. Molecular biology deepens the understanding of gene expression, gene replication and their applications to contribute to the advancements in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture etc. The following are the topics that come under Molecular Biology.

  1. DNA Replication and Repair: The mechanism of DNA replication is studied at the molecular level focusing on the molecular aspects of replication. Replication is error-prone; therefore, cells have mechanisms to repair the mechanisms.

  2. Gene expression and regulation: Genes are the regions that code for proteins, which affect the metabolisms and ultimately the functioning of the cell. The genes are not expressed all the time, i.e., their expression is regulated. This topic looks into the processes and mechanisms that look into gene expression and regulation.

  3. Protein synthesis and folding: The functioning of a protein depends on the 3-dimensional molecular modelling of the protein. The correct folding of the protein therefore is an essential event that copes with the normal functioning of the life.

  4. Molecular Genetics: This talks about the molecular mechanisms underlying heredity. It also examines how mutations and variations in DNA can lead to genetic traits and disorders.

  5.  Molecular Techniques and Instruments: This area involves the usage of the tools and techniques that aid in molecular research. Techniques like PCR, DNA sequencing, gel electrophoresis, spectrophotometry and their related instruments are explored. 

  6.  Molecular Evolution: With the techniques and tools of DNA sequencing and protein sequencing, a large pool of data has been summoned onto the websites. This data has all the information about the evolution of the organisms stored in their sequences, therefore, this can serve as an important tool in knowing the exact relationships between the organisms.

  7. Cellular Signalling and Communication: The ultimate aim of molecular biology is to understand life at the molecular level; therefore, it is very important to know how cell establishes communication with the external and internal environment, through interactions between receptors and signalling molecules.

  8. Molecular Interactions and Pathways: The molecular interactions that run the living state of a cell are explored, including all the metabolic pathways.

The above-mentioned topics have significant importance in advancing medical sciences, biotechnological applications, evolutionary insights, cellular functions, advancing forensic tools, drug development and agricultural development.

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Molecular Biology Assignment Help for University Students:

  • Gene and RNA Transcripts: Gene in molecular biology is a sequence of genetic information that codes for a product, which can be a protein or mRNA.The mRNA is translated into a protein in many of the structural genes. Some mRNAs do not get converted into proteins but form complexes with protein subunits of ribosomes, signal recognition particles, telomerase, spliceosomes etc.

Types of RNA transcripts:

  1. mRNA: Codes for Protein. In bacteria, usually, mRNAs are polycistronic—a single mRNA encodes two or more polypeptides. In most species of eukaryotes, each mRNA usually encodes a single polypeptide.

  2. tRNA:Transfer RNA (tRNA) is necessary for the translation of mRNA.

  3. rRNA:Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is necessary for the translation of mRNA. Ribosomes are composed of both rRNAs and protein subunits.

  4. miRNAs:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that are involved in gene regulation in eukaryotes.

  5. scRNA:Small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) is found in the cytoplasm of bacteria and eukaryotes. In bacteria, scRNA is needed for protein secretion. An example in eukaryotes is 7S RNA, which is necessary for the targeting of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is a component of a complex known as signal recognition particle (SRP), which is composed of 7S RNA and six different protein subunits.

  6. Telomerase RNA:The enzyme telomerase, which is involved in the replication of eukaryotic telomeres, is composed of an RNA molecule and protein subunits.

  7. snRNA:Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is necessary for the splicing of eukaryotic pre-mRNA. snRNAs are components of a spliceosome, which is composed of both snRNAs and protein subunits.

  8. snoRNA:Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) is necessary for the processing of eukaryotic rRNA transcripts.

  9. RNA of RNaseP:RNaseP is a catalyst necessary in the processing of tRNA molecules.

  • Transcription in Bacteria:

Transcription begins at the promoter region in a structural gene by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.
 

  • Promoter: A Promoter Is a Short Sequence of DNA That Is Necessary to Initiate Transcription. They Promote Gene Expression and are dozens in length. 

    Though promoters encompass dozens of nucleotides only some sequences are important. Comparison of many transcriptional units revealed two important sequence elements (Consensus sequence elements). The -35 and -10 regions are shown to be very prominent promoter elements in the initiation of Transcription. The sequences are TTGACA and TATAAT sequences.
    Promoter

    The nucleotide that acts as a template for transcription is numbered +1. This is the Transcriptional start site (TSS). Nucleotides are numbered negative left of the Transcriptional Start site (TSS). The numbers to the right of TSS are positive. 

    For example, the nucleotide that is immediately to the left of the +1 nucleotide is numbered –1, and the nucleotide to the right of the +1 nucleotide is numbered +2. 
    TSS nucleotide

  • RNA polymerase:Bacterial RNA polymerases have five types of subunits. α, β, β′, and ω have rather constant sizes in different bacterial species, but σ varies more widely. σ confers promoter specificity and, therefore has a role in activating specific genes, they have their promoter specificity associated with.

    RNA polymerase

    RNA holoenzyme can be divided into two: A core enzyme and a Sigma Factor.The α ββ ′ω core enzyme catalyzes transcription. There is also a Mg2+ ion site in the catalytic site.
    The σ subunit is required only for translational initiation.
    The sigma factor changes the DNA-binding properties.RNA polymerase’s affinity for general DNA is reduced and its affinity for promoters is increased. 

  • The chemical reaction of RNA synthesis:
    RNA synthesis

    RNA produced as a polymer of nucleotides happens in a 5’ to 3’ direction. The free 3’ OH group of the preceding nucleotide monophosphate is attached to the free 5’ phosphate end of the incoming 5’ nucleotide triphosphate, eliminating an inorganic pyrophosphate. 

  • Transcription Initiation Phase: Key points:

    • RNA polymerase slides along the DNA (closed complex). 

    • The sigma factor recognizes the promoter, once recognized it forms the open complex, opening the helix of the closed gene.

    • The open complex starts synthesizing the RNA using the DNA (3’ – 5’) as the template. This event is marked by the release of the sigma factor.

    • The DNA strand known as the template strand is used to make a complimentary copy of RNA as an RNA–DNA hybrid. 

    • RNA polymerase moves along the template strand in a 3′ to 5′ direction, and RNA is synthesized in a 5′ to 3′ direction using nucleoside triphosphates as precursors. Pyrophosphate is released (not shown). 

    • The complementarity rule is the same as the AT/GC rule except that U is substituted for T in the RNA.

      Closed complex
      open complex


      The important point one has to note is that the Template strand can vary from one gene to the other.

      For one gene 5’ – 3’ might be the template strand, and for the other 3’-5’ might be the template strand. However, the direction of synthesis of RNA will be always in the 5’-3’ direction.

      RNA polymerase

  •  Elongation:

    The Uninterrupted Elongation. May pause and Start on its own, in limiting conditions.

  •  Termination

    Two classes of Terminators have been Identified.

    • Intrinsic Terminators: Sequences recognised towards the upstream of a Transcriptional Unit.

    • Rho ( ρ ) Dependent Termination: Requires rut site (Rho Utilisation Site) and a  ρ protein. In the Rho-independent mechanism, the ends of the terminators have poly-A repeats in the DNA. These translate to poly-U repeats of RNA. The poly-A and poly-U interactions are very weak and cannot hold the DNA-RNA hybrid, the RNA falls off and the transcription stops.

To learn more, hesitate not to take help from Molecular Biology Assignment Help.

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Molecular Biology Assignment Help for School Students (Grade 9th to 12th)

Life at the molecular level is the interaction between macromolecules. The macromolecule that has the recipe of life encoded in them are the nucleotides. The

Nucleotides in all the organisms are made of DNA, with few exceptions like RNA viruses. The DNA in all organisms is double-stranded, with the exception of viruses with single-stranded DNA. 

Organisms reproduce through gene transfer - at the molecular level, the event that plays an important role in gene transfer is DNA replication.

The living state of Living organisms is maintained by interactions of proteins with other macromolecules, including proteins. These proteins are made through two events, Transcription and Translation, that parallels the conversion of DNA into an mRNA, and then to proteins respectively.
Replicationtranscriptiontranslation
   
Thus, life revolves around three important things, DNA replication, Transcription and Translation.

Transcript: Copy

Transcription: The act of making a copy.

In genetics, this term refers to the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence.

The product of a gene is either a Protein or an RNA molecule.

The part of the gene that codes for a functional product is termed “Structural Gene”. 

For a gene to be regulated and expressed, the structural gene must have certain regions that must define, the Beginning of a gene and the termination of the same gene.

The sequences that define the beginning of a gene are referred to as “Promoters”. They lie upstream to the Structural Gene.

The Sequences that define the termination of Transcription are “Terminators”. They lie downstream to the Structural Gene.

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One of our academic experts Bhaskar, has the capability to break down complex concepts into simpler terms, making it easier for students to understand and grasp the subject.  

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Free sample papers serve as an excellent learning tool. They help students practise what they have learned in the class to their knowledge and apply their understanding of the concepts.They help students to become familiar with the format of questions, level of difficulty and time constraints they might face during examinations.

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How Do You Do An Assignment In Molecular Biology?

A well-structured assignment is welcomed and explains the idea of the writer to the reader in a clearer picture. The following is a step-by-step guide on how to write an assignmеnt in molecular biology:

  • Thorough understanding of the Assignment:

    • Read and comprehend the assignment instructions.

    • Identify the key subject that needs to be tackled in your assignment.

  • Research:

    • Research all the work that has been done on the topic and its relevant areas via standard books, scholarly publications, and authoritative websites.

    • Make notes and organize the information to gain a clear understanding of the subject.

  • Structure of the assignment:

    • Develop an organized structure making the assignment into paragraphs, that include introducing statements, supporting points, a main body, inferences, and a conclusion.

  • Discuss Experimental Mеthods:

    • Mention the methodologies that you are going to follow to achieve the goals/specific requirements of the assignment.

  • Proofread and Edit:

    • Revise your assignment to check for any mistakes related to grammar, spelling, or punctuation.

    • Look for factual errors.

  • Includе Rеfеrеncеs:

    • Proper source citation reflects the authenticity of your work; verify this thoroughly before submission of your assignment.

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  4. Clear and Concise Communication: Clear communication is important so that students can readily understand the assignment, avoiding unnecessary technical terms.

  5. Confidеntiality and Privacy: Our highest regard is always the confidentiality and privacy of the customer. We adhere to stringent protocols to safeguard the sensitive information of the customer.

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FAQ

Molecular biology studies the life at the molecular level. This knowledge is applied to develop cutting-edge technologies to diagnose, treat, and cure diseases and better understand cellular processes.
Biochemistry deals with the chemical aspects of the reactions like the products formed, the reactants involved and the speed of the molecular reactions. In contrast, Molecular Biology deals with the structures and interactions of the molecules that maintain the state of the living.
DNA is made of four important nucleotides, Adenylic acid (A), Guanylic acid (G), Cytidilic acid (C) and Thymidylic acid (T).
 Enzymes are made of the macromolecules called “Proteins”.
Macromolecules that make up living organisms are Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
The molecular logic of life revolves around the nucleotides and proteins, which along with carbohydrates and lipids constitute the living state of an organism. The nucleotides (usually DNA are copied into mRNA), mRNA is later translated into proteins. This is the secret recipe of life, which later combines other macromolecules and their combinations to maintain the living state of an organism.
PCR technique is an in vitro chemical reaction that copies a segment of DNA to millions of copies.  
It is an analytical technique in molecular biology that is aimed at finding a specific protein from a mixture of proteins.  
Gel electrophoresis is a technique in molecular biology that is aimed at separating biomacromolecules especially, DNA and proteins in an agarose gel, based on charge and size.
RT-PCR stands for Real-time PCR. It has all reactions similar to that of a normal PCR, however, with slight modifications, that enable the researcher to measure the amplified copy while the PCR is run as opposed to the conventional PCR.

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