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Life Course Approach and Early Intervention In Health Promotion
  • 6

  • Course Code: 4NH907
  • University: Wolverhampton University
  • Country: United Kingdom

Introduction

This assignment is going to highlight the life course approach and early intervention in health promotion and protection of human development across the lifespan. It will examine different life stages to determine how physical development and other health determinants can shape early health interventions to improve and protect health.

It will also identify and analyse two major health needs prevalent in Wolverhampton (West Midlands), a locale with a population of 264,000, facing a 6.0% unemployment rate and educational challenges, with 9.5% unqualified, affecting a chosen life stage, including their various effects (Total Population, 2024).

Additionally, the study will evaluate a Wolverhampton health promotion initiative based on a specific need, applying health promotion theory to determine how the initiative can improve future health outcomes. 

Exploration of the Lifespan

The Life Course Approach 

The life course approach views health as a cumulative process shaped by many factors throughout an individual's life (Jones et al., 2019). This method covers the entire lifespan, from prenatal to old age, because biological, psychological, and social factors strongly influence health trajectories (Hertzman and Power, 2020).

Timing is essential as it emphasises the importance of critical developmental periods like early childhood or adolescence, when risks or protective factors can have lasting health effects. Critical windows such as adolescent period or childhood are crucial moments that can shape long-term health (Tohi et al., 2020).

Life span development is vital as according to this principle, health changes throughout life and is heavily influenced by early life experiences (Lange, 2021). It implies that early life events and conditions can influence later health (Smith and Pollak, 2020).

Contextual and historical influences are also stressed in this approach because individual health is shaped by societal, cultural, and historical factors (Kornadt et al., 2020). External factors affect health behaviours, resources, and wellbeing (Ruiz et al., 2021). 

Another part of this approach is pathways and trajectories (Rudolph et al., 2021). It shows that education, employment, and family life affect health. Health trajectories vary due to these life paths and individual choices.

Moreover, the logic of intergenerational health and social transmission holds that health patterns, health-related patterns of behaviour, and health-related risks can be passed down from one generation to another, impacting individual and future health-related conditions (Tohi et al., 2022).

Promoting And Protecting Health Through Early Intervention 

The life course approach: Regular early intervention is best for long-term health. By taking preventative steps before health problems become serious (Colizzi et al., 2020). It is crucial to positive and sustainable health trends (Ben-Shlomo et al., 2023).

The main purpose of early intervention is to prevent or treat chronic diseases by early detection and treatment of the risk factors and to thereby reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. This proactive approach not only benefits population health, it also reduces costs in the health care system.

In addition, intervention at an early age is necessary for attaining appropriate growth during crucial stages, providing a solid foundation for adult health (Colizzi et al., 2020). It involves tracking children's developmental milestones and assisting them in their physical, cognitive and emotional growth (Zubler et al., 2022).

There are various approaches to early intervention strategies, each suited to a given stage of development. Birchwood (2019) emphasizes that for expectant mothers, prenatal care and nutrition education are vital. This care not only protects the health of the mother and foetus; it also lays the groundwork for the child's future health.

Immunizations protect children from infectious diseases, while developmental screenings help identify any delays or disorders in development.

Engaging in healthy lifestyle education programs during adolescence will greatly enhance individual’s future health condition along with mental health and community well-being can be improved by providing mental health services and social support for risk populations (Tamanal and Kim, 2020).

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Influence of Physical Development and Wider Determinants on Early Intervention

Early intervention includes physical development during infancy, childhood, and adolescence (Morgan et al., 2021). During these stages, rapid physical changes can affect health.

During these periods of rapid growth, nutrition and physical activity interventions are musts for healthy growth and obesity prevention. Good nutrition enhances physical development; good exercise develops motor skills and prevents obesity.

Early interventions refer to various services and supports offered by government and non-government organisations to assist young individuals who face developmental delays (Srinivasan et al., 2021).

Early intervention may be compromised if lower socioeconomic groups have difficulty getting at health resources (Mathiarasan and Hüls, 2021). The absence of access to care may prevent or delay preventative care, so that early interventions, often the hardest to implement, are particularly important and urgently needed in such communities.

Educational programmes aid early intervention. They are very important in health risk education and the promotion of healthy behaviour. It is early childhood and adolescence that provide the optimum platform for these programmes to develop healthy habits and knowledge (Hargreaves et al., 2022).

The American Academy of Pediatrics suggested that healthy development in early ages offer the building blocks for economic productivity, educational achievement, responsible citizenship, strong communities, and lifelong health (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2024). 

Pollution and insufficient recreation can affect health. Environmental factors must be considered in tailored interventions to address specific health risks associated with different living conditions. Cultural beliefs and practices greatly impact health behaviours and health intervention attitudes.

Effective intervention strategies require understanding and respecting these cultural factors. Culturally sensitive approaches improve health intervention engagement and efficacy.

For instance, allocating a healthcare provider who has good knowledge of the patient’s language can make the engagement more effective by mitigating communication gaps (Granda, 2023).

Additionally, to increase efficacy of early interventions, diverse cultural beliefs around patient’s food should be respected by healthcare providers to promote patient comfort which contributes to patient engagement naturally (Granda, 2023).

Identifying Two Health Needs

Mental Health Issues 

Several of the indicators in the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment suggest that mental health is a serious issue in Wolverhampton (MacAlister, 2022). The main issues of concern are prevalence of depression disorder, and severe mental illness (SMI) and effective treatment of psychological disorders (Hofer et al., 2022).

Additionally, data on the proportion of patients with depression diagnosed recently who had a follow-up review in the 10-56-day post-diagnosis period, and the rate at which depression patients had individualized care plan adjustments and support are included (Office for Health Improvement and Disparities, 2024).

This is further reinforced by the focus on the premature mortality of adults suffering from SMI as well as the increased under-75 mortality rate in this population group (Office for Health Improvement and Disparities, 2024).

Wolverhampton caters to these needs by offering a wide range of mental health services, like community-based preventative programmes and tools designed to foster mental health in both adults and teenagers (West Midlands Mental Health Commission, 2023). These programmes show the city's commitment to improving mental health outcomes and providing comprehensive care to those affected.

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Obesity 

Childhood obesity is a serious health issue in Wolverhampton. According to data, 27.6% of kids in the Reception class (ages 4 and 5) are overweight or obese (City of Wolverhampton Council, 2023). By Year 6 (ages 10 to 11), when 42.9% of children are overweight or obese, this prevalence has alarmingly increased (City of Wolverhampton Council, 2023).

This rate is significantly higher than England's national average of 21% (West Midlands Mental Health Commission, 2023). In an effort to better the health and wellness of its youth, the city is actively addressing this problem through a number of health-related programmes and initiatives. Wolverhampton is proactively addressing this issue with its health and wellbeing initiatives in response (West Midlands Mental Health Commission, 2023).

The city takes a multipronged approach, with a focus on education and fun activities. These programmes are intended for families with young children, with the goal of encouraging both healthy physical development and the early adoption of healthy lifestyle choices (West Midlands Mental Health Commission, 2023).

Impacts of mental health issues and obesity in Wolverhampton

Mental health disorders impact multiple life areas, often causing chronic physical issues like heart disease and diabetes due to stress and behavioral changes (Nielsen et al., 2021). They impair cognitive and emotional function, reducing quality of life, and increase substance abuse risks as coping mechanisms (Estancial Fernandes, 2019).

These may have social consequences and short-term impacts like isolation, conflict, or stigma, making the situation even harder. In terms of the economy, economically these disorders cause huge losses by bringing long-term effects, not only in terms of the direct costs to the health care system, but indirect losses in terms of reduced productivity and employment due to the disorders, frequently setting into motion a feedback loop of a financially induced mental illness.

In the West Midlands, including Wolverhampton, the financial impact of poor mental health is huge--over £ 12 billion ($ 19 billion) per year (West Midlands Mental Health Commission, 2023).

The strain placed on bodily functions by complex obesity greatly increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and certain kinds of cancer. Agüera (2020) also points out its link to mental illnesses. The social stigma and body image problems it causes often lead to depression and low self-esteem in overweight people (KavehFarsani et al., 2020).

This stigma can result in social alienation, exacerbating mental illness and the quality of life. Moreover, the obese tend to have higher medical costs and are less likely to be employed with low incomes. They also lead lower quality lives because of health-related absenteeism or social prejudice (Anekwe et al., 2020). 

Health Promotion

The West Midlands Combined Authority (WMCA) has tackled childhood obesity in Wolverhampton in an active manner (Botchway, 2024). The region's obesity epidemic is being addressed by a multifaceted health promotion campaign entitled, "Ditch the Junk!" (WMCA, 2018).

Health Promotion Initiatives

To combat childhood obesity and improve public health, WMCA health promotion initiatives are proactive and multifaceted. The target of these efforts is to change children's surroundings, life styles, and the long-term habits (Botchway, 2024).

The main proposal is a ban on advertisements for junk foods near schools and on bus tickets (WMCA, 2018). Smith et al. (2019) state that advertising strongly affects children's food choices. Its aim is to encourage a healthier diet by reducing people's exposure to ads for unhealthy food. In this way, it reduces the biggest reason for unhealthy eating--childhood obesity.

Another highlight is the drive to promote physical activity. 'West Midlands on the Move' and 'Active Mile' encourage children at schools to exercise (Ward and Scott, 2021). If children walk a mile a day their health will be improved and a habit of daily exercise will be initiated. Family participation in activities like cycling promotes family bonding and community involvement, promoting holistic health and well-being (Lai et al., 2020).

Looking ahead, the WMCA is considering long-term obesity strategies (WMCA, 2018). This could include a regional ban on junk food advertising, using Sugar Tax funds for health-promoting activities, and launching a comprehensive awareness campaign involving the NHS, schools, and other sectors of society (Gardner, 2021).

These strategies aim to permanently address childhood obesity through policy changes and community engagement.

Theoretical Framework and Expected Outcomes

Health promotion theory, particularly Social Cognitive Theory, helps analyse the "Ditch the Junk!" initiative addressing obesity (WMCA, 2018). This theory emphasises environmental influence on behaviour (Schunk and DiBenedetto, 2020). Social cognitive theory offers a scope of growing specific habits by social influences from other agents of the society and the environment (Shahangian et al., 2021).

The “Ditch the Junk” initiative can be observed to have the features of social cognitive theory, as broader community has tried to influence the people of Wolverhampton to choose healthy choices in life. The initiative aims to change people's food choices, especially children's, by addressing environmental factors like unhealthy food availability and marketing.

Limiting junk food ads near schools reduces young people's exposure to unhealthy food, which may change their food preferences and consumption patterns. While promoting physical activity through campaigns like the 'Active Mile' directly influences behavioural factors, encouraging a more active lifestyle. These health promotion theory-based strategies aim to reduce the region's obesity epidemic by supporting healthier lifestyles (Public Health England, 2023).

These initiatives' expected outcomes include:

The "Ditch the Junk!" initiative tackles childhood obesity in a comprehensive and innovative way. This initiative is expected to improve the region's residents' health and well-being.

This initiative aims to reduce childhood obesity. The goal is to reduce exposure to unhealthy food ads and promote physical activity to address a growing health issue with far-reaching effects (WMCA, 2018). Childhood obesity poses immediate health risks and increases the risk of adult obesity-related diseases like diabetes and heart disease. The initiative seeks to improve community physical health by addressing this issue at its source.

The emphasis on physical activity and healthy eating should also improve mental health. Regular exercise reduces anxiety and depression, improving well-being. A nutritious diet supports cognitive function and mood stability (Muth and Park, 2021).

The initiative's focus on long-term health behaviour change is notable. The programmes teach Wolverhampton residents healthy habits rather than quick fixes. Sustainable change is needed to combat childhood obesity. The initiative also promotes healthy lifestyles for future generations (Stegeman et al., 2020). 

In essence, the "Ditch the Junk!" initiative takes a holistic and forward-thinking approach to childhood obesity. This initiative aims to improve the region's residents' health and quality of life by addressing physical and mental health, promoting lasting behaviour change, and promoting well-being.

Through this initiative, school children were encouraged to take part in active lifestyle by exercising and incorporating in campaigns such as West Midlands on the Move and the ‘Active Mile’. Future initiatives such as “Beat the Street”, and “Man v Fat Football” also shows the efforts of Wolverhampton to engage community in promoting healthier life choices (WMCA, 2018). 

Conclusion

The study of the human lifespan and health promotion and early intervention has illuminated ways to improve individual and societal well-being. A life course approach shows that early interventions targeting physical and socio-economic determinants are essential for healthier life trajectories.

The analysis of two health needs in a specific life stage showed the physical, psychological, social, and financial effects of these issues. Furthermore, examining a targeted health promotion initiative in the Wolverhampton showed that health promotion theories can be applied and significantly improve future health outcomes.

This comprehensive review emphasises the importance of a proactive and inclusive health approach.
 

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