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Exploring nurses' perceptions regarding the care requirements of patients diagnosed with COVID-19
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Your first assignment is a 1000-word essay critically reviewing a piece of qualitative research. This assignment is worth 35% of the total marks for this module and assesses the Module Learning Outcomes 1 and 2 in part, along with the part of MLO 3 relating to reviewing a paper/article:

1. To develop an appreciation of the principles of research and its application to healthcare, exploring and evaluating a variety of methods of data collection and data analysis. 

2. To develop an understanding of the structure of research question/s and design. 

3. To demonstrate an ability to (differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research methods and) review a published research paper/article. 

Choose one of the three pieces of research provided (these can be found in the assessment area on Canvas), and critically appraise it using a variety of sources (journal articles, books etc). Citation and referencing must be done using the Harvard method.

Introduction 

The research article chosen for the purpose of this critique is titled "Exploring nurses' perceptions regarding the care requirements of patients diagnosed with COVID-19: a qualitative investigation," authored by Galehdar et al., (2020). This article explores the perspectives of nurses regarding the care needs of patients affected by COVID-19, focusing particularly on the qualitative aspects of the study.

This critique aims to analyse the limitations and merits of the study, the approach that was employed, as well as the implications of the results obtained. The main objective of this review will be to evaluate the trustworthiness and dependability of the findings using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines.

The CASP, provides a structured framework to guide the rigorous assessment of qualitative study results. It includes a series of fundamental queries that function as an outline for the analysis. 

In this review, I will take advantage of the scholarly and analytical abilities developed across the course/module to thoroughly assess the study article.

The procedure will involve an analysis of the methodology utilised, the recognition of possible biases, an evaluation of the strength of the evidence, and the development of inferences that reflect the existing evidence.

Accordingly, the CASP questions that will be utilised as an indicate of article quality and validity are as follows:

●    Did the chosen research design effectively address the research question at hand?
●    Was the recruitment of participants conducted in a suitable manner?
●    Was the data collection conducted in a satisfactory manner?
●    Was the analysis conducted with a satisfactory level of rigour?
●    Was the research context duly considered?
●    Can the findings be considered credible?

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Main body

The scholarly article titled "An In-depth Investigation of Nurses' Perceptions on the Care Requirements of Patients with COVID-19" by Galehdar et al., (2020) explores a significant topic within the context of the global health crisis caused by COVID-19. The primary aim of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives held by nurses concerning the care needs of individuals who have been diagnosed with COVID-19.

In order to accomplish this objective, a qualitative research approach utilised, entailing the execution of 20 interviews via telephone. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of COVID-19, encompassing its global implications as well as the signs exhibited among people impacted by the illness.

The researchers underscored the essential function of healthcare professionals in offering patient care alongside emphasise the vitality of acknowledging the demands of patients for improved medical treatment during the pandemic. However, it is apparent that the introductory section of this investigation might potentially be improved by including clear research objectives. The inclusion of this aspect would have enhanced the research by providing a more targeted and refined approach. 

The research article offers a limited justification for the verification of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. The study incorporates specific components of qualitative research, such as using the technique of intended sampling as well as the conventional technique involving material analysis. Nevertheless, the article exhibits a deficiency in full disclosure regarding data analysis alongside fails to clearly express a precise research objective.

Furthermore, it is noted that there has been a lack of sufficient clarification on the references of criteria for determining confidence. Although the research successfully identifies pertinent themes, it lacks a comprehensive analysis of the implications and suggestions which might be drawn from the findings. In general, the article exhibits a degree of conformity to the standards set forth by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).

However, there is room for improvement in the research paper by including methodical indications and explicitly stating the goals it aims for to better conform to the criteria outlined by the CASP tool. The research utilises a traditional content analysis methodology, employing purposeful sampling for recruiting subjects.

The methodology employed within this research is suitable for acquiring a thorough comprehension. However, it is important to acknowledge the fact that the article lacks a detailed explanation of the particular standards employed in selecting participants (Galehdar et al., 2020).

This omission has the potential to affect the applicability and generalizability of the study's findings. Furthermore, the utilisation of telephone interviews for data collection gives rise to apprehensions regarding the quality of data and the establishment of rapport. The application of the Lundman and Graneheim method for data analysis resulted in the identification of six main classifications and 12 sub-categories.

This rigorous approach facilitated a comprehensive exploration of nurses' perceptions, yielding valuable insights. Nevertheless, the article exhibits a deficiency in transparency regarding the disclosure of the procedures employed during the analysis of data, thereby potentially compromising the veracity and reliability of the research outcomes.

Though trustworthy standards for maintaining the integrity of qualitative research are discussed, it is unclear how these were implemented, causing readers to wonder about the thoroughness of the study. The findings reveal nurses' perspectives on COVID-19 patients' care requirements, which centre on psychological counselling, service quality enhancement, data upgrade, social support enhancement, spiritual care, and social welfare (Galehdar, N. et al., 2020).

The article does not elaborate on possible consequences or suggestions based on the discovery of these themes, which is useful in improving patient care. In sum, the findings of this study provide critical information about how nurses see the care requirements of COVID-19 patients. The approach used in the study, lack of data analysis accountability, and vague research aims are all significant drawbacks. If these concerns are addressed, the study's findings may carry more weight and be more broadly applicable to improve patient care throughout the ongoing pandemic.

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Conclusion

The article "Exploring nurses' perception about the care needs of patients with COVID-19: a qualitative study" is an excellent resource for understanding nurses' points of view on patients' care requirements during the pandemic. Purposive sampling and traditional content analysis are two examples of how the study follows the CASP paradigm, but it falls short in other areas, such as lack of transparency in data analysis and an unstated goal.

Patient social assistance, service quality enhancement, and psychological consultation are all highlighted as crucial themes. Future research should aim to overcome shortcomings in methodology and provide meaningful recommendations for enhancing patient care during COVID-19 in order to bolster the study's credibility.

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References 

Galehdar, N. et al. (2020) ‘Exploring nurses’ perception about the care needs of patients with COVID-19: a qualitative study’, BMC Nursing, 19(1), pp. 1–8. doi: 10.1186/s12912-020-00516-9.

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