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SVD ANALYSIS IN YALE FACES
  • 7

  • Course Code:
  • University: Yale University
  • Country: USA

Yale Faces B Dataset


Abstract

Offering a deep dive into face emotions and arrangements, the Yale Face Database includes 165 GIF pictures spanning 15 themes. Examining the use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and contrasting cropped and uncropped photos, this abstract goes into the meat of the research conducted on the expanded Yale Faces B dataset.

The underlying structure of the dataset is made clear by applying SVD on the pictures in the dataset, transforming them into a more understandable representation. Specifically, the U matrix stores eigenfaces, which are crucial for capturing variations; the matrix stores singular values that evaluate the importance of an eigenface; and the V matrix aids in picture reconstruction. Important modes for accurate picture reconstructions are identified using the singular value spectrum.

The trade-offs between precision and realism are made clear when cropped and uncropped photos are compared. Cropped photos improve analytical robustness by allowing for the extraction and alignment of face characteristics. In addition to providing more background, uncropped photographs also have more variation. Analysis purposes should guide your choose between these methods.

Introduction

Image processing, data compression, and signal analysis are just a few of the many applications of linear algebra's Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). When applied to the photos in the Yale Face Database, SVD analysis becomes a potent tool for deducing the images' intrinsic structure and extracting useful features for further usage in things like image reconstruction, recognition, and analysis.

Images of people's faces in various poses and expressions are stored in the Yale Face Database (Aggarwal et al., 2021).To do SVD analysis, images must be transformed into column vectors, with numerous vectors coming together to create a matrix. This data matrix is divided into U,, and V using singular value decomposition (SVD).

These matrices provide a methodical approach to extracting useful information from the picture data and reveal previously hidden insights.

The U matrix, often known as the "left singular vectors," is a representation of the face-space basis vectors. Eigenfaces, which are key components describing changes in facial pictures, may be thought of as the vector representations of these elements.

By combining numerous eigenfaces, we may describe each facial picture as a linear combination of these basis vectors, with each eigenface corresponding to a particular facial feature or emotion.

The matrix is a single value diagonal matrix. These numbers give an idea of how much variation there is in the data and how significant each eigenface is. Singular values with a larger absolute value represent stronger patterns of variation, whereas those with a smaller absolute value reveal more subtle shifts (Ali et al., 2022).

One way to learn how many significant modes are needed for precise picture reconstructions is to look at the singular value spectrum, which provides a measure of the face space's rank.

Known as the "right singular vectors," the V matrix stores data on how each picture contributes to the eigenface space. By mixing eigenfaces with the right coefficient weights, it makes it easier to reconstruct pictures.

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Dataset

When studying face identification and analysis, many researchers turn to the Extended Yale Face Database B (Fronckova et al., 2019).It's a library full of pictures of people's faces captured in a wide range of poses, angles, and lighting.

The dataset out of 3000 .pgm files and has taken 24 images and analysed the work .The dataset's stated purpose is to offer a varied collection of photos with which to test and train facial recognition systems. Facial expressions, lighting, and occlusions are just few of the factors that have been studied using this dataset.

Here are some key details about the dataset:

Number of Subjects: 15 subjects (subject01, subject02, ..., subject15)

Images per Subject: 11 images per subject

Facial Expressions/Configurations: The dataset includes images for the following facial expressions are:

•    center-light
•    w/glasses
•    happy
•    left-light
•    w/no glasses
•    normal
•    right-light
•    sad
•    sleepy
•    surprised
•    wink

Importing of data

1. Displaying an Array of Cropped Images:

A cell array with the name pictures into which we may place our various photographs along with their descriptive names. Using a series of nested loops, the photos are arranged in a grid. The show function is used to display the photos included in the images array, each of which is an image from the Yale Faces B collection. A major title may be added to the story using the sg title function.

2. Processing and Saving Uncropped Images:

The uncropped photos from the Yale Faces B collection are processed by the algorithm here. The location of the unaltered.pgm photos is specified here. The dir method is then called to compile a directory's worth of picture files. A blank matrix, image_matrix, is created in the code to hold the rasterized pictures.

In the following loop, each picture file is read in using the imread function, and then the image is "flattened" by being transformed from a row vector into a column vector. Columns in the image_matrix hold the rescaled image vectors.

Lastly, the image_matrix is saved using the save function as a.mat file named "yalefaces_images.mat" with the given settings.

Interpretation:

The code snippet is performing the following tasks:

Featuring a grid of thumbnails of Yale Faces B photos showing a variety of face emotions and poses. This graphic aids in seeing the variety of photos contained in the data collection.( Gao et al., 2020).

Flattening the uncropped photos into column vectors and saving them in the image_matrix constitutes processing and preparation. Each column in this matrix is a vectorized version of one of the uncropped photos.

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Implementation

QUESTION 1:

To address Question 1, which analysis  on  the performing Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and visualizing the results on the Yale Faces B dataset images.

1.    Converting Images to Flattened Matrix: The code starts by converting the cell array of images into a 2D matrix (Hu et al., 2017). It calculates the necessary dimensions based on the number of rows and columns in the original images array. It also determines the dimensions of each image in terms of height and width.

2.    Initializing Flattened Image Matrix: An empty matrix named flattened_images is initialized to store the flattened version of each image. Each column in this matrix will represent a flattened image.

3.    Flattening Images and Storing in Matrix: Using nested loops, the code iterates through each cell in the images array, flattens the image, and stores the flattened image vector as a column in the flattened_images matrix. This process effectively vectorizes the images for subsequent analysis.

4.    Performing Singular Value Decomposition (SVD): The SVD is performed on the flattened_images matrix using the svd function with the 'econ' option. This decomposition yields three matrices: U (containing the left singular vectors), S (containing the singular values as a diagonal matrix), and V (containing the right singular vectors).

5.    Visualizing Singular Values: The code generates a plot of the singular values obtained from the SVD. The x-axis represents the index of the singular value, and the y-axis represents the magnitude of the singular value. This plot helps to visualize the significance of each singular value.

6.    Visualizing Principal Components (Eigenvectors): The code generates another set of plots to visualize the first few principal components (eigenvectors) obtained from the SVD. It reshapes each eigenvector back to the original image dimensions and displays them using imshow. These eigenvectors represent the dominant modes of variation in the dataset.
 
Figure 1 : Principal components
Principal Components 

Figure 2 : Array of Imported Images
Array Of Imported Images

QUESTION-2

In the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) applied to image analysis:

U matrix: The left singular vectors are in this matrix. When it comes to pictures, these vectors are what make up the "face space." Each cell in the U matrix is an eigenface or a main component (Kalantzis et al., 2021).These eigenfaces show the most important differences or trends in the photos in the set. They show how the info is really put together.

This matrix is a diagonal matrix with the singular numbers in it. The importance of each main component (eigenface) is measured by its singular value. The diagonal parts of the matrix show the falling order of the singular values. These numbers show how much difference there is in the data recorded by each eigenface.

V matrix: The right singular vectors are in this matrix. It may not be as important as the U matrix when it comes to picture analysis. From the eigenfaces in the U matrix, the V matrix gives you the values you need to rebuild a picture. It helps reduce the number of dimensions and squeeze data.

QUESTION NO. 3

The Key parts of dimensionality reduction and approximation in SVD image analysis are the singular value spectrum and the number of modes (rank 'r') that are needed for good image reconstructions:

Spectrum of Singular Values: A picture of the singular values from the matrix makes up the singular value spectrum. Most of the time, the single numbers are put in order from highest to lowest (Kiani et al., 2021). The range shows how quickly the importance of each single number starts to go down. A steep drop-off means that a few main modes (eigenfaces) catch most of the difference in the data, while a shallow drop-off means that more modes are needed to accurately describe the data.

Number of Modes (Rank 'r'): The form of the singular value spectrum determines how many modes (eigenfaces) are needed for good picture reconstruction. Setting a threshold or choosing a cut-off point on the single value range is a popular way to do this.

The rank 'r' of the estimate is determined by this cutoff. If the number 'r' is higher, more eigenfaces are used, which captures more variation but could also add noise. A smaller rank 'r' means that fewer eigenfaces are used, which makes the representation simpler but could mean that important features are lost. The best 'r' number strikes a balance between these trade-offs.

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QUESTION 4

In the face recognition and analysis, comparing cropped and uncropped photos can shed light on the following aspects of data quality and analysis:
images aligned and cropped Cropped photos are those in which a certain part of the picture—in this example, the subject's face—has been removed.

This is commonly done to isolate the subject's face from their surroundings. Facial characteristics, such as the eyes, nose, and mouth, are also standardised in aligned photographs. By standardising the placement of face features, this alignment makes further analysis more reliable and mitigates the impact of posture changes.

Advantages of Cropped and Aligned Images:

Reduced Variability: Cropped and matched pictures remove information that isn't related to facial features. This lets algorithms focus only on facial features. This cuts down on the differences caused by different lights, backgrounds, and head positions.

Normalised Scale: Alignment makes sure that the size of each person's face traits is the same, which makes it easier to compare and analyse them.

Robust Analysis: When photos are cropped and lined up, feature extraction is more reliable. Features like the eyes, nose, and mouth are always in the same place. This makes it easy to find these features and compare them between pictures.

Pose Invariance: Alignment lowers the number of different poses, which makes it possible for algorithms to recognise faces from different directions of the head.

Uncropped photos: Uncropped photos show the whole scene that the camera saw, so the face is often part of a bigger picture. There is more variety in these pictures because the scenery, lighting, and head positions are all different.( Liu et al., 2018).

Advantages of Uncropped Images:

Uncropped images provide context, which may be advantageous for some applications. For example, identifying individuals in real-world scenarios where the context is significant.

Realistic Representation: Uncropped images depict how features are encountered in the actual world, with scale, pose, and lighting variations.

When comparing cropped and uncropped images, it is essential to keep in mind the objectives of the analysis. If the objective is to obtain accurate and consistent face recognition and analysis under diverse conditions, cropped and aligned images are typically preferable.

However, uncropped images may be more appropriate if the objective is to comprehend the effect of real-world variations on facial recognition or if contextual information is important.

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QUESTION-5

The effect of picture rotation on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis is being evaluated. The fundamental action of image rotation in image processing can alter the original organisation and properties of a picture collection. The code snippet is concerned with learning whether or not the SVD of rotated photos yields useful insights on the dataset's variability.

Initial steps involve defining a rotation matrix with an angle of interest (30 degrees here). Images may be transformed using this matrix while maintaining their original proportions and details. The rotation matrix is applied to the original pictures array, rotating each image by the specified amount. The photos that were rotated are saved in the rotated_images array.

The algorithm then uses SVD analysis to examine the rotated pictures in the same way it did the originals. To use SVD, the rotational pictures are first transformed into a flattened matrix. Plots of the SVD's singular values reveal patterns in their distribution. Knowing the number of important modes of variation is useful for compression and feature extraction, and this is commonly approximated with a low-rank approximation.

The key interpretation points are as follows:

Effect of Rotation on Singular Values:

The way picture rotation affects the importance of modes of variation may be seen in the displayed singular values of the rotated images. Rotation may produce new patterns or highlight distinct visual aspects if the distribution of singular values significantly shifts.

Rank of SVD for Rotated Images:

To calculate the SVD's rank, find the point where singular values are no longer significant. Using a threshold value, the programme counts the number of singular values and uses it to determine the rank (Malkomes et al., 2017). In a rotating picture collection, this rank value represents the effective number of dominating modes of variation.

Impact on Image Analysis:

Ranking rotated photos helps assess if information is lost or new patterns are created. A change in rank may indicate that rotation adds new information, whereas a stable rank may suggest that the underlying structure of the dataset has not been significantly altered.
 
Figure 3 : Singular values of Rotated images

 Singular values of rotated images


Figure 4 : Singular value spectrum
singular value spectrum

Conclusion

Finally, the enlarged Yale Faces B dataset provides valuable insights into the fields of image analysis and facial recognition, as demonstrated by the examination of the Yale Face Database. The photos in the dataset have been translated into a more understandable format using methods like Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), exposing important underlying patterns in the data.

When SVD is used, we obtain three primary matrices: U, and V. The eigenfaces, or fundamental characteristics that cause changes across pictures, are contained inside the U matrix. Singular values, representing the importance of each eigenface in capturing data variance, are stored in the matrix. By providing coefficients for the U matrix's eigenfaces, the V matrix enhances the picture reconstruction process.

When calculating the required number of modes for picture reconstructions, the singular value spectrum emerges as a crucial reference. Dominant modes that capture most of the variance in the dataset are shown by the steepness of the spectrum's decay. Important characteristics can be preserved while unwanted noise is reduced by setting a suitable threshold.

Images with and without cropping reveal the value of preprocessing. Images that have been cropped and aligned improve analysis reliability by removing superfluous details and creating a uniformity in face characteristics. Contrarily, uncropped photographs preserve the nuances of real-world environment and provide invaluable background details. Analysis goals and the trade-off between precision and veracity will inform your decision.

This study of the Yale Faces B dataset ultimately proves the efficacy of image analysis methods in comprehending and making sense of complicated visual data. The dataset is a great example of the synergy between mathematics and computer vision, providing new perspectives on issues like facial recognition and HCI. Knowledge gathered from this kind of investigation is vital, and it helps pave the way for developments in many different areas, from biometrics to augmented reality, as technology progresses.

REFERENCES

Aggarwal, A., Alshehri, M., Kumar, M., Sharma, P., Alfarraj, O. and Deep, V., 2021. Principal component analysis, hidden Markov model, and artificial neural network inspired techniques to recognize faces. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 33(9), p.e6157.
Ali, D., Touqir, I., Siddiqui, A.M., Malik, J. and Imran, M., 2022. Face recognition system based on four state hidden Markov model. IEEE Access, 10, pp.74436-74448.
Fronckova, K., Prazak, P. and Slaby, A., 2019. Singular value decomposition and principal component analysis in face images recognition and FSVDR of faces. In Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Proceedings of 39th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology–ISAT 2018: Part II (pp. 105-114). Springer International Publishing.
Gao, Q., Xia, W., Wan, Z., Xie, D. and Zhang, P., 2020, April. Tensor-SVD based graph learning for multi-view subspace clustering. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 34, No. 04, pp. 3930-3937).
Hu, C., Lu, X., Ye, M. and Zeng, W., 2017. Singular value decomposition and local near neighbors for face recognition under varying illumination. Pattern Recognition, 64, pp.60-83.
Kalantzis, V., Kollias, G., Ubaru, S., Nikolakopoulos, A.N., Horesh, L. and Clarkson, K., 2021, July. Projection techniques to update the truncated SVD of evolving matrices with applications. In International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 5236-5246). PMLR.
Kiani, K., Rezaeirad, S. and Rastgoo, R., 2021. Hmm-based face recognition using svd and half of the face image. Modeling and Simulation in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1(2), pp.45-50.
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Malkomes, G., de Brito, C.E.F. and Gomes, J.P.P., 2017. A stochastic framework for K-SVD with applications on face recognition. Pattern Analysis and Applications, 20(3), pp.845-854.
Song, G., Ng, M.K. and Zhang, X., 2019. Robust tensor completion using transformed tensor svd. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.01113.
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Zhang, J., Qin, X., Xiao, Y., Fei, R., Zang, Q., Xu, S., Bo, L., Li, H., Zhang, H. and Zhong, Z., 2022. Subspace cross representation measure for robust face recognition with few samples. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 102, p.108162.
Zhang, J., Saibaba, A.K., Kilmer, M.E. and Aeron, S., 2018. A randomized tensor singular value decomposition based on the t‐product. Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications, 25(5), p.e2179.
Zhang, Y., Hu, C. and Lu, X., 2018. Face recognition under varying illumination based on singular value decomposition and retina modeling. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77, pp.28355-28374.

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