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Developing a User-Friendly Mobile Application for Reporting Road Infrastructural decay in Nigeria
  • 2

  • Course Code:
  • University: Sheffield Hallam University
  • Country: United Kingdom

Abstract

The present study furnishes detailed insights into the development of a user-friendly software application called the Road Infrastructure Reporting System, which was tailored for usage in Nigeria. The primary purpose of this software is to simplify the procedure of reporting and monitoring road infrastructure issues, ultimately aiding road user engagement and reinforcing infrastructure management across the nation.

To realize this objective, multiple fundamental phases were carried out during its development cycle. Commencing with requirement collection, moving onto comprehensive analysis and prioritization of these requirements, systematic incorporation of features ensued by demanding testing and user assessment.

During the evaluation phase, the developers' concentrated efforts to obtain feedback from Nigerian users proved advantageous. This strategy facilitated a better understanding of the application's strengths while also identifying areas that required improvement.

The feedback provided by users played a significant role in creating a roadmap for future enhancements. This research emphasizes how implementing systematic development processes and adhering to user-centered design and rigorous testing methodologies within context-specific environments can lead to favorable outcomes.

The outcomes of this study are anticipated to make a noteworthy contribution towards forthcoming initiatives focused on creating analogous applications. This could be beneficial for the administration of public infrastructure not just in Nigeria, but also in other areas confronting comparable difficulties.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1 Background and Context

Nigeria, a West African country, is grappling with a significant challenge of road infrastructural decay that has far-reaching consequences. Various factors, such as inadequate maintenance, poor road conditions, and insufficient investments in infrastructure have led to an alarming deterioration of roads throughout the nation. Heavy traffic, extreme weather conditions, and a lack of regular upkeep have further complicated this issue.

The state of disrepair in many parts of Nigeria threatens the country's transportation network, public safety, and economy. Inadequate maintenance and rehabilitation of existing road networks are among the primary causes of road infrastructural decay in Nigeria. The absence of essential activities such as pothole repairs, resurfacing, and bridge maintenance allows road conditions to deteriorate over time.

Improper drainage systems also make matters worse by causing waterlogging which significantly damages roads during heavy rainfall periods. Another contributing factor is insufficient investments in road infrastructure due to a shortage of funds allocated for construction projects or maintenance works.

This shortfall limits the scope of any necessary repair or expansion work required on Nigerian roads while prioritizing plans leads authorities struggling with various infrastructural issues spread across different parts within the country.

The ramifications associated with road infrastructural decay are multifaceted and extensive; firstly, compromised safety measures pose a considerable risk to public safety: potholes damage signage inadequate lighting poorly maintained bridges contribute to accidents leading to injuries and fatalities.

Secondly inadequate infrastructure hampers economic growth thereby hindering movement goods services trade activities access markets which results in increased transportation costs reducing productivity competitiveness exacerbating existing economic challenges faced by industries reliant on transportation for their operations.

The Federal Roads Maintenance Agency (FERMA) in Nigeria has set up a web-based system for citizens to report poor road conditions on federal roads. By visiting the web page "https://ferma.gov.ng/report-a-bad-road/", individuals can provide detailed information about the state of a specific road. Essential details required for the report include the reporter's name, email, telephone number, and the specific location of the problematic road.

The reporter also describes the state of the road—whether it's almost bad, very bad, totally damaged, or they can provide a unique description. Additionally, the system allows for the upload of up to four photos or videos to visually illustrate the issue, with each file having a maximum size of 1MB. This initiative by FERMA facilitates proactive citizen participation in maintaining road infrastructure in Nigeria.

bad road reporting website
Figure 1.1: A screenshot of the bad road reporting website in Nigeria

In conclusion ,the problems facing Nigeria's transport sector cannot be overlooked because it forms its lifeline by facilitating movement within urban & rural areas .

Therefore urgent interventions targeting sustainable development planning combined investment initiatives that aim at improving infrastructure will restore quality assurance enabling efficient access to markets whilst improving enhanced livelihoods through improved productivity thus driving up competitiveness reducing poverty rates across all levels within the economy.

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1.2 Problem Statement and Research Question

Nigeria, a country with a vast transportation network, is grappling with significant challenges related to the decaying state of its road infrastructure. The deteriorating condition of roads poses multifaceted threats to the safety, efficiency, and economic development of the nation. This dire situation can be attributed to factors such as insufficient maintenance, limited resources and bureaucratic processes that have hindered timely interventions.

One of the key issues facing Nigeria is the lack of an effective reporting system for road-related problems that is user-friendly. The current mechanisms for reporting issues concerning roads in Nigeria are often unresponsive, slow and lacking transparency which makes it challenging for people to communicate their concerns to relevant authorities.

This difficulty in sharing information leads to delayed responses which further aggravates existing problems and impedes progress towards socio-economic growth.
Consequently, the decay in road infrastructure persists resulting in detrimental effects on daily life while impeding progress across many sectors.

To tackle this issue, this research aims to identify ways through which technology can be effectively utilized by developing a user-friendly mobile application that will facilitate efficient reporting of infrastructural decay on Nigeria's road networks.

By creating such an application that addresses existing challenges posed by traditional reporting systems, people will be empowered to actively participate in maintaining their roads leading to more timely interventions when necessary.

The study will focus on how best practices from other countries could be applied within Nigeria's unique context while also taking into consideration cultural differences and other factors that may influence adoption rates among different demographics.

The outcome of this research project would enhance road infrastructure within Nigeria while promoting social engagement through citizen participation ultimately contributing significantly towards overall socio-economic development in the nation.

Research Question:

What strategies should be employed for developing a user-friendly mobile application capable of effectively addressing inefficiencies associated with current methods used for reporting road infrastructural decay on Nigerian roads?

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1.3 Aims and Objectives

Aims:

The aim of this research work is to develop a user-friendly mobile application that facilitates efficient reporting of road infrastructural decay in Nigeria. The application will contribute to the improvement of road infrastructure and transportation management.

Objectives:

•    Examine the factors contributing to road maintenance challenges and the decay of road infrastructure in Nigeria, considering socio-cultural and economic aspects, as well as technological advancements.
•    Design a user-friendly mobile application that allows road users to report road infrastructural decay to relevant government agencies in real-time. The application will prioritize simplicity, ease of use, and intuitive reporting features.
•    Evaluate and test the effectiveness and usability of the developed mobile application, considering factors such as user satisfaction, successful issue resolution, and the impact on road infrastructure improvement. This evaluation will provide insights into the app's performance and guide potential enhancements or modifications.

1.4 Deliverable 

Visual representations (wireframes and/or mockups) of the mobile application's user interface, providing an intuitive and user-friendly experience for reporting road infrastructural decay.

1.5 Dissertation Outline

The remainder of this dissertation is structured as follows: Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive literature review on mobile applications for people reporting and road infrastructural decay in Nigeria.

Chapter 3 outlines the research methodology, including research design, data collection methods, and ethical considerations. Chapter 4 details the mobile application development process, including user requirements analysis, system architecture design, and testing procedures and app designs.

Finally, Chapter 5 offers conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for future research. In summary, this dissertation aims to address the challenges of road infrastructural decay in Nigeria through the development of a user-friendly mobile application for public reporting.

By empowering people to actively participate in improving road conditions, this research seeks to contribute to the enhancement of transportation infrastructure and the overall socio-economic development of the country.

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Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The significance of having a well-developed road infrastructure in a country cannot be overstated as it plays an instrumental role in the economic growth and societal wellbeing of nations (Adeyemo, 2020). When roads are constructed and maintained to high standards, transportation efficiency and safety are significantly enhanced.

The author, (Adeyemo, 2020) noted that road infrastructure decay has become widespread in many developing countries like Nigeria, posing a significant threat to those who use the roads and impeding socio-economic advancement.

Thankfully, various strategies have been put in place over time to remedy this problem. According to (Chohan et al., 2022), one approach that has shown promise is the use of mobile applications as part of technological interventions. And, (Berker, 2023) notes that these applications can aid individuals with navigating through poorly maintained roads, alert them about traffic congestion or accidents ahead, thereby reducing travel time while promoting safety on our highways.

The purpose of this extensive literature review is to delve deeply into a variety of sources and investigate the current understanding regarding the creation of mobile applications that are easy for users to navigate when reporting road infrastructure deterioration.

This review will not only scrutinize the significance of road infrastructure, but it will also focus on the specific challenges experienced in Nigeria. Furthermore, it will thoroughly examine how mobile applications can play a key role in addressing this prevalent issue.

Additionally, various factors that must be taken into account when developing user-friendly mobile apps for reporting damaged roads will be discussed at length.

2.2 Importance of Road Infrastructure

The road infrastructure of a nation is considered the most crucial element in its transportation system. The hassle-free movement of people and goods is largely dependent on the condition of roads.

The authors, (Banister & Berechman, 2001; Aerts et al., 2019) emphasize that a well-maintained and developed road network directly impacts the overall economic growth, social welfare, and environmental well-being of a country.

For instance, smooth connectivity through improved roads significantly reduces transportation costs, which ultimately boosts trade activities and promotes economic development.

Moreover, good road transport systems provide accessibility to remote areas, improving citizens' livelihoods by connecting them to markets, healthcare facilities, educational institutions and other necessary services.

From a safety perspective, well-constructed roads with proper traffic management systems can help minimize accidents and make travel safer for all users (World Health Organization, 2018).

The authors, (Aerts et al., 2019) also conclude that good quality roads also support sustainable mobility solutions such as walking and cycling while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles that impact the environment.

Therefore, it's essential to prioritize investments in road infrastructure for any country aspiring for sustainable socio-economic growth.

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Economic Implications:

The authors Banister & Berechman (2001) emphasize that the development of road infrastructure is not just essential for promoting economic growth, but it also provides an efficient means to transport goods and services between regions, leading to increased trade and commerce. This connectivity enhancement fosters economic productivity.

According to Aerts et al. (2019), good road infrastructure not only reduces travel time but also optimizes traffic flow and lowers congestion, thereby improving transportation efficiency and reducing vehicle operating costs for businesses and individuals. Adeyemo (2020) highlights that globally, investing in adequate road infrastructure is recognized as a key factor in achieving sustainable economic growth, offering lasting benefits to society and supporting environmental sustainability efforts.

Furthermore, the construction of road infrastructure projects, as noted by Aerts et al. (2019), not only enhances transportation facilities but also plays a significant role in promoting economic progress through the creation of job opportunities. The construction, repair, and regular maintenance of roads generate employment prospects, contributing to income generation and poverty reduction.

Aerts et al. (2019) further underline that improved road connectivity attracts investments to regions or nearby areas. A well-connected road network provides better accessibility for businesses and industries to transport goods and services efficiently, leading to increased investment inflow and fostering growth opportunities for various sectors. This potential expansion could result in more entrepreneurship opportunities and greater commercial activity within a region or community.

Social Implications:

Sagir et al. (2021) highlight that roads play a crucial role in promoting social well-being and human development, extending beyond mere economic benefits. The provision of roads grants easy accessibility to vital services like education, healthcare, and other social amenities that would otherwise be challenging to reach.

In rural regions, the road networks significantly reduce the distance between remote communities and urban centers, fostering greater societal integration. This is especially vital since rural areas can often be marginalized and isolated from urban developments due to their location or inadequate infrastructure.

By enhancing connectivity through road networks, individuals in these underdeveloped areas gain access to improved education, healthcare, and other essential services, leading to healthier lives and increased productivity.

Thus, investing in road infrastructure uplifts the standards of living for society's most vulnerable populations while contributing to economic growth. Aerts et al. (2019) point out that road infrastructure has the potential to be more than just transportation—it can foster cultural exchange and economic growth by promoting tourism.

Well-constructed roads connecting different parts of a region make it easier for people to visit tourist sites and engage in cultural activities. This increased accessibility attracts tourists who become potential customers for local businesses, generating revenue to sustain these enterprises.

Furthermore, well-maintained roads have become a crucial component for the success of any tourism venture. Tourists tend to avoid poorly connected or poorly maintained places due to concerns about travel inconveniences.

On the contrary, when roads are well-maintained and equipped with amenities, travelers feel confident about embarking on their journey and fully enjoying the location. Investing in robust road infrastructure not only serves transportation needs but also indirectly fosters cultural exchange between regions while boosting local economies through tourism activities.

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Safety Implications:

The importance of road infrastructure safety cannot be stressed enough. As per the statistics provided by the World Health Organization, road traffic injuries are amongst the most prevalent causes of mortality across the globe (WHO, 2018).

It is a widely accepted fact that inadequately managed or planned roads have a higher potential for accidents, which can undoubtedly lead to severe implications for human life and well-being.

When it comes to road safety, factors such as poor lighting conditions, inadequate pedestrian crossings, and unsafe intersections contribute significantly to the risk posed by poorly-designed roads. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize proper maintenance and effective planning of roads so that they can provide a secure transportation system while minimizing risks involved in vehicular commuting.

Enhancing road safety is an arduous task that requires a comprehensive approach. Apart from fixing physical damages like potholes, cracks, and other similar issues, it's essential to address the design flaws of the roads. Dangerous curves and inadequate signage can pose significant risks to drivers and passengers alike. Addressing such problems could make a significant difference in reducing road accidents and improving overall safety levels.

Additionally, maintaining roads in good condition can lead to better traffic flow patterns and significantly reduce congestion, which further enhances safety for everyone on the roadways. As per the World Health Organization report published in 2018, improving road infrastructure plays a crucial role in promoting safe transportation systems globally.

Environmental Implications:

The authors Aerts et al. (2019) underscore that the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure hold crucial implications for environmental sustainability. They emphasize that well-designed and properly maintained roads promote efficient vehicle usage, resulting in reduced fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions—critical factors contributing to climate change.

These authors emphasize that such reductions can significantly impact environmental conservation efforts, making investment in quality road infrastructure an essential element of comprehensive strategies aimed at mitigating climate change consequences.

Conversely, poorly maintained roads can lead to inefficient vehicle operation, causing increased fuel consumption and emissions. Moreover, the authors Aerts et al. (2019) highlight that road construction and maintenance activities can directly affect the environment, causing soil erosion, pollution, and habitat destruction.

Addressing these negative effects requires meticulous planning, strict adherence to environmental regulations, and close cooperation among state government agencies or private contractors involved in infrastructure projects. These measures, as emphasized by Aerts et al. (2019), are crucial for minimizing the ecological impact of road-related activities.

The significance of road infrastructure development in a nation's progress and prosperity cannot be overstated. It shapes economic growth, social welfare, environmental sustainability, and safety. The proper maintenance of road infrastructure should be a top priority for any government or administration.

Neglecting this aspect could have profound consequences for present and future generations. Thus, policymakers must take decisive actions to address road infrastructure decay issues, as highlighted by Aerts et al. (2019). Such actions would contribute to national development, public safety, reduced social inequalities, environmental preservation, and overall well-being.

2.2 State of Road Infrastructure in Nigeria

Nigeria's road network in West Africa stands as the most extensive, connecting the country's 36 states with the Federal Capital Territory, as highlighted by the Nigerian Communications Commission (2019). This transportation system serves as a vital link between rural and urban areas, fostering trade and commerce across regions.

However, despite its vastness, maintaining this road infrastructure remains a formidable challenge due to various factors, as noted by Oyedepo & Sojobi (2016). The overuse of roads by vehicles and pedestrians accelerates wear and tear, resulting in potholes and uneven surfaces that pose risks to motorists.

Additionally, natural decay due to harsh weather worsens the situation, degrading the quality of these critical routes, as emphasized by Voigt et al. (2018). Moreover, inadequate funds allocated for maintenance impede efforts to enhance road quality (Adeyemo, 2020).

Consequently, commuters encounter numerous challenges related to transportation safety and efficiency on these roads, as highlighted by the World Health Organization (2018).

Road Infrastructure in Nigeria:

Nigeria boasts a well-developed road system that plays a pivotal role in facilitating transportation within the country and supporting regional trade and transportation, as emphasized by Banister & Berechman (2001). Its strategic position in West Africa is further enhanced by a network linking major cities, towns, and villages.

This efficient road network is essential for smooth business operations, safe travel, efficient goods transport, and cross-border trade, underscoring its critical importance, as detailed by Adeyemo (2020).

Nigeria's road network comprises over 200,000 kilometers of roads, including federal, state, and local roads, as outlined by the Nigerian Communications Commission (2019). Federal roads, accounting for nearly 18% of the network, are key links between major cities and states, crucial for national and international trade.

State roads, constituting about 15%, connect smaller towns within states and complement federal highways. Local roads, approximately 67%, serve communities by connecting rural areas to urban centers, providing access to essential services, including healthcare and education.

Policymakers must consider the distinct roles of each road type when designing transportation infrastructure policies. Prioritizing federal thoroughfares supports national and international economic growth. Simultaneously, investing in state and local roads positively impacts small businesses and enhances rural connectivity.

Managing Nigeria's road network is the responsibility of federal, state, and local governments. However, challenges in maintenance persist. Federal Road Maintenance Agency (FERMA) primarily focuses on repairs rather than prevention, critiqued by Oyedepo & Sojobi (2016). State and local governments lack resources and expertise, impeding effective maintenance, as discussed by Adeyemo (2020).

Despite the extensive road network, Nigeria's infrastructure quality remains inconsistent, with only 30% of roads paved, often deteriorating, especially during the rainy season, as highlighted by Voigt et al. (2018).

Safety features like signage and pedestrian walkways are lacking, posing risks to road users, noted by the World Health Organization (2018). Rural areas suffer more, limiting access to vital services during rainfall, as Sagir et al. (2021) emphasize.

Addressing these challenges is crucial for economic growth and citizens' well-being across regions. Urgent attention is needed to improve road conditions, ensure accessibility, and enhance the lives of Nigeria's diverse population.

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Challenges faced by Road Infrastructure in Nigeria:

Nigeria's road infrastructure is currently facing a multitude of critical challenges that demand immediate attention. Despite its status as one of Africa's largest economies, the condition of Nigeria's roads is deplorable, as underscored by Oyedepo & Sojobi (2016). This deterioration has wide-ranging effects on transportation, commerce, and public safety, posing significant concerns.

One of the primary issues is the insufficient funding allocated for road maintenance and rehabilitation. The lack of resources has led to prolonged periods of neglect for federal and state-owned roads, resulting in severe deterioration over time, as outlined by Adeyemo (2020).

Another pressing challenge is the prevalence of corruption in road construction projects. The use of substandard materials and unethical practices by contractors due to bribery or kickbacks to government officials has further exacerbated the problem (Adeyemo, 2020).

Additionally, conflicts between local communities and construction companies have led to project delays or abandonment, complicating infrastructure development (Oyedepo & Sojobi, 2016). Urban areas also grapple with road congestion due to inadequate capacity planning.

Cities like Lagos suffer from chronic traffic congestion caused by narrow roads and poorly regulated urban influxes, as illuminated by Adeyemo (2020).
So it can be concluded that, the challenges facing Nigeria's road infrastructure require comprehensive solutions involving collaboration among all stakeholders, including government agencies, private sector participants, civil society organizations, and citizens themselves, as emphasized by Adeyemo (2020).

The implications of the current state of Nigeria's road infrastructure are vast and profound. Beyond the transportation sector, these challenges reverberate throughout the economy and society. The impact on transportation includes increased traffic congestion, longer travel times, higher fuel consumption, and frequent vehicle breakdowns, ultimately reducing productivity and increasing costs (Banister & Berechman, 2001).

Public safety is compromised as well, with accidents resulting from potholes and uneven surfaces, inadequate lighting, and insufficient pedestrian facilities (World Health Organization, 2018). Environmental degradation is another consequence, driven by runoff from damaged roads causing soil erosion and noise pollution from heavy vehicles on uneven surfaces (Aerts et al., 2019; World Health Organization, 2018).

To address these implications, governments must prioritize investments in improving road infrastructure. This ensures economic growth by facilitating efficient movement of goods and people, enhancing safety measures, and addressing environmental sustainability concerns. By taking action now, Nigeria can pave the way for a more prosperous and equitable future for its citizens.

2.3 Role of Technology in Infrastructure Management

In today's world, where digital transformation is the norm, technology has become paramount to infrastructure management as noted by (Berker, 2023). With the continuous advancements in technology, it has now become easier to collect and analyze data that pertains to infrastructure (Chen et al., 2018).

Moreover, technology aids in the maintenance and repair of buildings and other structural components by identifying potential issues before they escalate into more significant problems.

The integration of technology into infrastructure management not only enhances operational efficiency but also helps organizations save a significant amount of costs that would have been spent on manual labor-intensive tasks (Berker, 2023). Consequently, this leads to an overall improvement in the quality of infrastructure provided to individuals and communities.

Infrastructure management has benefited significantly from technological advancements, especially in data collection and analysis (Chen et al., 2018). Modern technologies like Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and drone imagery have made it possible to obtain detailed, real-time information on the conditions of infrastructure (Voigt et al., 2018).

GIS technology has enabled road conditions mapping and analysis, which aids in identifying areas of damage or decay. Remote sensing technology gathers critical road condition data using satellite or aircraft-based sensor technologies without direct physical contact with the infrastructure (Voigt et al., 2018). Drones can also be used for data collection and offer high-resolution imagery of hard-to-reach areas that provide valuable insight into road conditions (Voigt et al., 2018).

Apart from facilitating data collection, technology also enables sophisticated data analysis. With machine learning algorithms capable of analyzing vast amounts of datasets, predicting road decay is now possible while identifying maintenance needs and optimizing repair schedules becomes more straightforward as well (Chen et al., 2018).

In summary, infrastructure management benefits significantly from modern technologies that facilitate real-time data collection and sophisticated analysis techniques that enhance decision-making processes regarding infrastructure maintenance needs. The impact of technology on infrastructure is not only limited to its construction but also on its maintenance and repair.

Various technological advancements are helping to enhance the efficiency of infrastructure maintenance procedures (Berker, 2023). One such innovation that has gained attention in the recent past is 3D printing technology, which is being examined for its feasibility in repairing potholes and other types of road damage (Berker, 2023). This groundbreaking technique can potentially revolutionize the conventional methods employed by transportation departments across the world. 

Moreover, robots have also found their way into infrastructure maintenance activities, making them more streamlined and effective. They can perform a variety of tasks including inspecting bridges to check for any damage or weaknesses as well as cleaning drainage systems that are crucial for ensuring a smooth flow of water during heavy rains.

By relying on robotic technology, workers can avoid hazardous situations that may arise while carrying out these activities manually. Overall, with these advanced technologies in place, maintaining and repairing critical infrastructural facilities has become much easier and efficient than it was before.

These innovations have enabled us to address issues regarding failing infrastructure swiftly while reducing risks associated with traditional techniques, making our roads safer and more reliable for all users.

The advancement of mobile technology has revolutionized citizen engagement in infrastructure management by enabling citizens to actively participate in their communities. With the use of mobile apps, people are now able to report issues related to infrastructure, serving as an efficient early warning system for local authorities.

In this way, people are empowered with the ability to improve their environment and contribute to the betterment of their neighborhoods. Some examples of these apps include BOS:311 in Boston and FixMyStreet in the UK, both providing a platform for citizens to report a range of issues such as potholes, graffiti, or broken streetlights.

These tools not only promote civic responsibility but also allow individuals who may have otherwise felt disconnected from public life a chance to partake in shaping it for the better. By fostering greater communication between local authorities and residents, these apps help build stronger communities that work together towards communal goals and progress.

The applications that are used to report issues often incorporate Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, which is a powerful tool that allows the identification of the precise location of the problem. Additionally, machine learning algorithms are also utilized to examine patterns in these reported problems and help prioritize repairs. This is especially useful in identifying chronic issue areas and ensuring that they receive prompt attention.

By analyzing data with these methods, it's possible to increase efficiency and effectiveness when dealing with reported problems. Therefore, these technological approaches help streamline the process of identifying issues and resolving them in a timely manner, leading to better outcomes for all parties involved. To sum up, there is a great opportunity for technology to play a significant role in the improvement of infrastructure management.

By means of various technological advancements like data gathering and processing, maintenance systems, and citizen engagement platforms, more effective and efficient methods can be used to manage infrastructures. This can lead to faster response times and cost savings that can benefit both society and the government.

Therefore, it is important to recognize the potential that technology holds for better infrastructure management practices and continue investing in such solutions to achieve desirable outcomes.

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2.4 Mobile Applications for Reporting Infrastructure Decay

The world we live in today is largely digital and mobile applications have become increasingly important for public service delivery and citizen engagement (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014). These apps are no longer limited to just socializing or entertainment, but they also serve a crucial role in addressing infrastructure decay (Berker, 2023).

Mobile applications empower us to report infrastructure issues quickly, triggering more efficient responses from authorities (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014). This helps in streamlining the entire process of voicing our concerns about infrastructure problems and getting them fixed as soon as possible (Berker, 2023). Through this swift response system provided by mobile apps, a lot of time and resources can be saved while ensuring timely attention to these issues.

Global Examples of Infrastructure Reporting Mobile Applications:

Numerous cities and countries across the world have successfully adopted mobile applications to address infrastructure-related issues. In Boston, USA, (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014) presented the fact that the BOS:311 app has provided citizens with an effective platform to report non-emergency issues in their locality, particularly those associated with road decay.

The app leverages GPS technology to pinpoint the exact location of the reported problem automatically. Additionally, users can upload images to furnish additional information for a better understanding of the issue at hand.

Similarly, in the United Kingdom, the authors (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014) also told that local councils have implemented FixMyStreet application that enables residents to report various problems in their neighborhood, such as potholes, damaged streetlamps and graffiti.

As per reports by (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014), this app has proven instrumental in streamlining and expediting responses to such issues resulting from its user-friendly interface and ability to provide precise information about the problem's location.

Potential for Mobile Applications in Nigeria:

Nigeria has a high mobile phone penetration rate of 84% as of 2019, indicating significant potential for the development and deployment of mobile applications to address road infrastructure issues (Nigerian Communications Commission, 2019).

The use of such an application tailored to meet the needs of Nigeria's citizens would enable them to report infrastructure problems quickly and accurately (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020). Additionally, it would provide real-time data on road conditions to local authorities, who could prioritize repairs and allocate resources accordingly (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020).

However, several challenges must be addressed in developing and deploying such a solution in Nigeria (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020). These include designing user-friendly features that can function offline given that internet connectivity is intermittent in some parts of Nigeria (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020).

Furthermore, maintaining data privacy and security will be critical to ensure widespread adoption (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020). The success of this mobile application will depend significantly on government support from relevant agencies and actively promoting the app among the public (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020).

By doing so, this technology could facilitate improved safety, efficiency, and sustainability overall for Nigeria's road infrastructure.

To summarize, if developed effectively with these factors carefully considered throughout its creation process and promotion activities considered afterward; introducing mobile applications targeting road infrastructure decay presents a promising opportunity worth pursuing closely in Nigeria.

2.5 Developing a User-Friendly Mobile Application

Regarding the creation of mobile applications that address specific purposes, such as reporting issues with road infrastructure in Nigeria, there are several vital aspects that developers must consider. One of the key determinants of success for this type of application is its level of user-friendliness.

If users have a difficult time navigating through the app or encounter challenges while attempting to perform desired actions, they are unlikely to use it regularly or encourage others to do so (Nielsen, 2012). To ensure that our application is indeed user-friendly, we must keep certain elements in mind.

Firstly, focus on designing both the User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX). The UI comprises visual components displayed on each screen and how they work together. In contrast, UX encompasses how users experience our app overall and whether it meets their expectations (Nielsen, 2012). 

Another important element for an application aimed at Nigerian users would be language localization since English may not be everyone's native language. We should consider providing options for other languages commonly spoken within this region (Ethnologue, 2021).

In addition to considering these UI/UX and language factors, developers should also provide offline functionality where possible. This means that even without internet connectivity, users can still access certain features or information on our app (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020).

Finally, but importantly when designing such applications is data privacy and security concerns which are paramount for ensuring trustworthiness among target audiences towards the app. If users feel unsafe sharing confidential information with our platform due to inadequate security measures put in place by developers could lead them away from using it further (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014).

By taking all these critical factors into account while designing and developing Nigerian road infrastructure issue-reporting apps will decrease customer frustration attributed to non-user-friendly interfaces arising from ignoring these crucial aspects during design stages thereby making sure customers engage better with such applications leading towards potential positive feedbacks and increased overall engagement levels too (Nielsen, 2012).

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User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) Design:

In regard to creating a digital product or service, it is crucial to take into account two significant phrases - User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) Design (Nielsen, 2012). UI design pertains to the visual element of the product, such as its color schemes, typography, and layout. Its primary objective is to produce an aesthetically attractive appearance that is effortless on the eyes.

In contrast, UX design targets elevating users' overall experience with the product. This encompasses various aspects like seamless navigation of different pages or features of an app or website as well as intuitive interface (Nielsen, 2012).

UI/UX designers play a pivotal role in the development of products with an appealing visual appearance and user-friendly interface. Their design incorporates various elements such as easy-to-understand navigation menus, layouts that are responsive to different displays, captivating visuals, and interactive attributes, which enable users to effortlessly navigate through the product.

The ultimate objective is to create an uninterrupted user experience that ensures a lasting engagement between customers and our brand by allowing them to conveniently explore our site and find what they need without any inconvenience or frustration.

To summarize, the creation of an effective UI/UX entails more than just appearance. It necessitates conscientious attention to user requirements throughout the development process. This involves conducting extensive studies on user behavior patterns to enable designers to anticipate customer needs even before they are expressed.

The development of a high-quality User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) designs for an application is critical in providing user satisfaction. To meet the expectations of users, certain principles such as simplicity, intuitiveness, consistency, and familiarity must be integrated. UI design pertains to the application's appearance while UX design concerns how it feels to use the app.

Prioritizing these elements during app development is crucial since users tend to abandon apps that are difficult to navigate or understand. The primary objective of having an excellent UI/UX design is to retain user interest by offering a straightforward interface, comprehensible navigation system, and familiar components that enable trouble-free usage of the application.

According to Nielsen (2012), incorporating these essential principles enhances user satisfaction and stimulates their likelihood of revisiting for further services. Hence developers must concentrate on creating apps with outstanding UI/UX designs for optimal user experience.

Prioritizing user experience is crucial during the development of a mobile application. A key approach to achieving this goal is to incorporate an interface that is streamlined and free from clutter, thereby facilitating easy comprehension of the app's features.

The language utilized in the application must be succinct, unambiguous, and straightforward which would reduce cognitive load on the user and promote smooth navigation through the app without any confusion or frustration.

When crafting an application, it is imperative to consider navigation as a crucial aspect. It is of utmost importance that users can effortlessly locate essential features without having to navigate through a maze of menus or screens. A seamless and intuitive navigation experience results in an improved user experience by minimizing cognitive load while searching for desired functionalities.

The usage of consistent design elements such as buttons, icons and colors are crucial in promoting usability. When the design is uniform throughout the app's interface, users become more acquainted with it which in turn facilitates better comprehension of its workings.

Novice users ought to be offered some sort of direction when they begin utilizing the application. This could consist of concise instructional exercises or tooltips that furnish brief elucidations on the working of crucial features.

Such assistance plays a vital role in familiarizing fledgling users with the application's functionality, thereby averting any bewilderment or vexation due to unfamiliarity with the system.

Language Localization:

Nigeria is a country that boasts a rich diversity of languages, with over 500 distinct languages being spoken across its length and breadth (Ethnologue, 2021). This staggering number of languages is a testament to the cultural richness and diversity of this West African nation.

However, it also presents some challenges when developing applications for widespread use, as not all users may be familiar with or able to understand certain dialects or languages. To overcome these challenges, it is recommended that developers localize their applications to cater to the major languages spoken in Nigeria, such as Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, and English (Ethnologue, 2021).


By doing so, they ensure that their applications are more accessible and can reach a broader user base. This localization process involves translating the app's content into different regional dialects and ensuring that all features are fully functional in those languages.

Ultimately, by taking these steps to make their application more inclusive and diverse, developers can create an environment where everyone feels welcome and valued.

In conclusion, localizing an application for Nigeria's linguistic diversity should be seen as an opportunity rather than a challenge - one that has the potential to connect people from different parts of the country and promote cultural exchange within the region.

Offline Functionality:

Given the intermittent internet connectivity in some parts of Nigeria (NCC, 2019), the application should be designed to function offline. Users should be able to report issues even without an internet connection, with the application storing the report locally and then syncing the data when connectivity is restored (Ekwonwune & Oparah, 2020).

Data Privacy and Security:

In this day and age, data privacy and security are of utmost importance. As more and more information is being shared online, it is crucial for individuals and organizations to take measures to protect their data (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014). Data breaches can have severe consequences, such as financial loss, reputation damage, and even legal action.

Therefore, it is essential to implement strong security measures like encryption, firewalls, password protection, and two-factor authentication to secure sensitive information (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014). Additionally, individuals should be mindful of the information they share online by avoiding using public Wi-Fi networks or clicking on suspicious links or emails. By prioritizing data privacy and security in both personal and professional settings, we can safeguard ourselves against potential threats in the digital world.

Due to the sensitive nature of user data, it is imperative that the application upholds the utmost standards of privacy and security mechanisms. This entails implementing clear and transparent privacy policies, which inform users about what kind of information is being collected, precisely how it's used and shared, as well as who has access to it.

Additionally, to ensure that user data remains secure from unauthorized access, the app must deploy advanced encryption techniques - in doing so, making certain that users' personal information isn't vulnerable to cyber threats such as hacking or phishing attacks. Safeguarding user data should be viewed as a top priority for any trustworthy application developer--failure to do so can not only endanger the privacy of users but also lead them towards mistrusting and eventually abandoning your app altogether.

User Engagement and Feedback:

One of the most crucial aspects of any successful product or service is user engagement and feedback. Without active participation from users, it's difficult for businesses to know what their customers want or need (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014).

Additionally, feedback provides valuable insights into how products or services can be improved to better meet the needs of users. This is why many companies invest in gathering feedback through surveys, focus groups, and other methods.

By doing so, they can gain a better understanding of their target audience and make informed decisions about how to improve their offerings. Ultimately, user engagement and feedback play an essential role in building customer loyalty and driving business growth (Kaufmann & Siegert, 2014).

In order to maintain an application that is constantly improving and adaptive to the needs of its users, it is essential for there to be various channels that allow users to provide feedback. It is crucial that the users can effortlessly report any issues they encounter while using the application and suggest improvements that could enhance their experience.

Furthermore, it would be a great idea for the application to incorporate a system where reported problems are rated or reviewed by other users, as this will instill in them a sense of participation and encourage them to stay engaged with the app. Therefore, creating multiple ways for users to offer feedback can result in higher user satisfaction levels and positively impact their overall experience with your application.

To wrap up the discussion, creating a mobile application that is easy to use for citizens to report road infrastructure deterioration in Nigeria requires a deliberate assessment of multiple factors. Among these key elements is an interface that is intuitive and straightforward, taking into account local languages and dialects. It also necessitates providing the option of offline utilization in areas with limited or no network coverage.

Robust data security protocols must be incorporated to ensure users' personal information remains private and protected from unauthorized access or misuse.

Moreover, continuous engagement with app users through updates and feedback mechanisms will play an essential role in maintaining their interest and usefulness over time. These aspects combined will determine the success of such an undertaking aimed at improving transportation conditions across Nigeria's various regions.

2.6 Advantages of Mobile Reporting over Existing Web Reporting

Incorporating mobile reporting systems in lieu of conventional web-based reporting offers a multitude of advantages that aid in providing an effective and user-oriented strategy for tackling the deterioration of road infrastructure. The preponderance of evidence substantiates the dominance of mobile reporting applications over traditional systems, validating the transition towards mobile platforms for addressing road-related concerns.

Utilizing the proficiency of smartphones and their widespread usage, mobile reporting has been established to be user-friendly and convenient. It provides an intuitive platform for submitting reports on road infrastructural decay with ease. In comparison to conventional web reporting, mobile applications present a mobile-optimized interface that enhances accessibility and user-friendliness (Bauer et al., 2017). The tactile nature of mobile interactions has improved the overall experience, thereby motivating more citizens to actively take part in reporting issues related to roads.

The mobile reporting has many benefits, among them the simplicity and accessibility it provides. An illustration of its simplicity is evident in its guest reporting feature. This functionality removes the necessity for users creating accounts, thus simplifying the overall reporting process and reducing inconveniences. Furthermore, the use of mobile applications makes it possible for people to report issues on the move. This allows efficient capturing and submission of relevant information about road-related problems without complicated form-filling or account setup procedures as described by Vaziri et al. (2018).

The advent of mobile applications has brought forth a novel feature- the ability to report favorable road conditions. This documentation of past events provides a thorough account of the state of roads over different periods, furnishing valuable information on improvements and developments over time. Such an extended outlook can assist policymakers in evaluating the efficacy of maintenance initiatives and facilitating prudent utilization of resources (Jin et al., 2016).

Table 2.1: Summary of critical system checking models and features in the existing literature and

Author Availability Integrity Security Confidentiality Privacy Interactivity Chat
Chohan et al. (2022) Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
Berker (2023) Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Voigt et al. (2018) No Yes No No Yes Yes No
Kaufmann & Siegert (2014) Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
Ekwonwune & Oparah (2020) No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
Nielsen (2012) Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
Adeyemo (2020) No No Yes Yes No No No
Aerts et al. (2019) Yes Yes No No Yes No No
Banister & Berechman (2001) No No Yes Yes No Yes No
Proposed System Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Chapter3

Methodology

3.0 Introduction

The methodology chapter of the present study furnishes a detailed account of the research methods and strategies employed. Furthermore, it elucidates the process involved in developing the proposed mobile application, accompanied by an important discussion on key considerations and requirements that influenced the design and implementation of the system.

The main aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive understanding to readers about all systematic procedures followed during both research and development stages. This meticulous breakdown instills dependability and accuracy in our findings while demonstrating the efficacy of our proposed solution for addressing identified issues.

3.1 Pragmatism

The research philosophy employed in this study is pragmatism, which serves as a basic framework for effectively tackling the intricate problem of road infrastructural decline in Nigeria. Pragmatism offers a diverse and practical approach to this topic.

Pragmatism, drawing its foundations from the philosophical lineages of American pragmatists such as John Dewey and William James, places significant emphasis on the value of practicality, problem-solving, and research that is oriented towards action.

The philosophical framework of pragmatism is well-suited to addressing the complex and diverse aspects of the research subject under consideration. The deterioration of road infrastructure is a critical concern that necessitates the implementation of effective and practical remedies.

This study embraces a pragmatic research attitude, recognizing the necessity of practical solutions that may effectively connect theoretical knowledge with tangible results. It acknowledges the importance of not just comprehending the issue at hand, but also actively participating in its solutions.

An essential principle of pragmatism is its inclination towards embracing a wide range of ideas and methodologies. Pragmatist researchers have a pragmatic stance towards research, demonstrating a willingness to include many research methods and paradigms to attain the intended objectives (Bryman, 2016).

Within the framework of this research, pragmatism enables the incorporation of both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, highlighting their efficacy in tackling various facets of the issue of road infrastructural deterioration.

Moreover, the philosophical framework of pragmatism promotes the inclination of researchers to carefully contemplate the tangible consequences of their discoveries and actively involve themselves with relevant stakeholders and users in the actual world.

When it comes to the development of a mobile application that is user-friendly, a pragmatic approach entails more than just building the application using theoretical knowledge. It also involves actively engaging with and addressing the needs and expectations of both users and pertinent government organizations.

3.2 Research Strategy

The chosen research methodology for this study is the case study approach. The case study research design is very suitable for conducting in-depth investigations into intricate real-life phenomena within their natural contexts. Within the scope of this study, the term "case" pertains to the matter of deteriorating road infrastructure in Nigeria.

The case study methodology facilitates a thorough analysis of this complex issue, encompassing a broader understanding of its socio-cultural, economic, and technological milieu. The case study approach offers a significant benefit in its capacity to offer a comprehensive and intricate comprehension of the research subject.

The deterioration of road infrastructure is impacted by various causes, encompassing government policies, user behaviors, technological obstacles, and economic limitations. Through a case study approach, scholars are able to conduct an in-depth examination of each of these dimensions, investigating their interrelationships and influence on the broader matter.

In addition, the use of the case study approach affords researchers the opportunity to examine the phenomenon across an extended period, hence facilitating a longitudinal viewpoint. The issue of road infrastructural deterioration is of particular significance due to its dynamic and evolving nature.

One further advantage of employing the case study methodology is its inherent adaptability in the selection and implementation of data collection techniques. Researchers have the ability to utilize a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods for data collecting, contingent upon the particular research inquiries and the type of data needed. 

3.2 Research Approach

The selected research approach for this study is the inductive approach. Inductive research is distinguished by its focus on the methodical collection and analysis of empirical data in order to produce insights and ideas that can be generalized. Exploratory research studies, such as ours, find this approach particularly suitable. The process of inductive inquiry commences by gathering unprocessed data and making observations.

Within the framework of this research, data is collected from many sources, encompassing stakeholders, users, and government organizations, with the aim of obtaining information pertaining to road conditions and the obstacles associated with the deterioration of infrastructure. The data sources are fundamental in establishing the basis for the development of patterns, themes, and generalizations.

The use of the inductive technique is highly suitable for addressing the intricate issue of road infrastructural degradation. The complexity of this matter is shaped by a variety of elements, encompassing socio-cultural, economic, and technological dimensions, hence posing difficulties in formulating predetermined hypotheses or theories.

On the other hand, the utilization of the inductive approach permits researchers to investigate the matter in a receptive manner, facilitating the discovery of concealed insights and associations that might not have been evident through deductive reasoning.

One of the primary benefits associated with the use of the inductive technique is in its capacity to develop hypotheses or conceptual frameworks that are firmly rooted in empirical evidence. As the research proceeds and data is systematically gathered and analyzed, researchers are able to discern recurrent patterns and themes, so facilitating a more profound comprehension of the issue at hand.

Subsequently, these emerging patterns can be utilized to formulate theoretical constructs that elucidate the dynamics underlying the deterioration of road infrastructure in Nigeria.

3.4 Data Type

This research exclusively adopts a qualitative data type approach. Qualitative data collection and analysis methods are well-suited for the in-depth exploration of the multifaceted issue of road infrastructural decay in Nigeria. The decision to focus solely on qualitative data aligns with the research philosophy and objectives of this study.

Methods for collecting qualitative data, like semi-structured interviews, present an opportunity for researchers to gain a thorough understanding of the subjective experiences, perceptions, and expectations of individuals who have a stake in the matter. These parties may include road users, government officials, and other pertinent authorities.

This approach emphasizes an appreciation for the intricacies of the issue from the viewpoint of those most closely connected to it. The qualitative data-oriented approach highlights the significance of comprehending the context and connotation in grasping the decay of road infrastructure.

It acknowledges that this predicament is not just a subject of figures and numerical values but has profound connections with Nigeria's socio-cultural, economic, and technological setting.

Using qualitative data allows investigators to scrutinize the subtleties, impediments, and underlying reasons for infrastructural decay, providing insight into the mechanisms and foundation of the issue.

3.5 Data Collection

This study utilizes a blend of cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques for gathering data to offer an extensive and fluid outlook on the matter of deterioration of road infrastructure in Nigeria. The selection of this timeline strategy acknowledges the ongoing nature of the issue and emphasizes the significance of documenting both present circumstances and alterations over time.

Collecting cross-sectional data entails acquiring information from various heterogeneous sources at a particular moment in time. In the framework of this research, cross-sectional data presents a snapshot of the current status of road infrastructure, reporting methodologies, and user outlooks.

This methodology enables researchers to comprehend the immediate setting in which decaying road infrastructures happen and gauge the initial consequences of utilizing mobile reporting applications.

The collection of cross-sectional data is highly advantageous in establishing an initial comprehension of the problem at hand. This method allows researchers to pinpoint common patterns, difficulties, and user conduct related to the deterioration of road infrastructures.

By conducting surveys and interviews using this technique, analysts can acquire valuable knowledge regarding existing reporting strategies, user inclinations, and levels of contentment with current road infrastructure conditions.

The study also integrates a longitudinal viewpoint by gathering information over an extended duration. The collection of longitudinal data encompasses the tracking of variations and advancements in the research area across time. Regarding the deterioration of road infrastructure, such an approach facilitates me to scrutinize the influence of utilizing mobile reporting applications and appraise the efficacy of proposed measures and strategies for enhancing road conditions.

The collection of longitudinal data is imperative in comprehending the temporal fluctuations associated with the deterioration of road infrastructure. It provides researchers with the means to gauge the advancement or reduction of road conditions, monitor the frequency and essence of reported problems, and assess the effectiveness of relevant government entities.

The accumulation of data over various time intervals enables researchers to recognize trends, patterns, and plausible causal connections that may not be conspicuous through cross-sectional data only.
 

  Method Timely Data Collection Low Bias Risk Clear Understanding of Questions Easy Evaluation of User Perception High Response Rate Simple Data Analysis
1 Questionnaire No Yes No No Yes Yes
2 Direct Observation Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
3 Semi-Structured Interviews Yes No Yes Yes No No

This table provides a comparison of the three data gathering methods considered in this project: Questionnaire, Direct Observation, and Semi-Structured Interviews. The Direct Observation and Semi-Structured Interviews methods were chosen due to their ability to provide timely data, ensure a clear understanding of questions, enable easy evaluation of user perception, and maintain a high response rate.

On the other hand, the Questionnaire method, while beneficial in certain scenarios, was not deemed as effective for this specific project due to its limitations in ensuring a clear understanding of questions and evaluating user perception.

3.6 Techniques and Procedures for Semi-Structured Interviews

To learn more about the decay of Nigeria's road infrastructure and the creation of the smartphone reporting app, this study relied heavily on semi-structured interviews. These interviews were conducted using the following methods and practices:

1. Interviewee Selection: Intentionally chosen for their direct involvement or effect on road infrastructure and reporting systems, these stakeholders include road users, government officials, infrastructure maintenance staff, and representatives from related agencies.

2. Informed Consent: Participants were informed of the study's aims, procedures, and protections before giving interviews. All interviewees signed informed consent forms to show that they knowingly and voluntarily consented to take part in the study.

3. Designing an Interview Guide: A semi-structured interview guide, along with a series of open-ended questions and prompts that encouraged exploration of different themes, was constructed. Current road conditions, difficulties in reporting degradation, hopes for a mobile reporting tool, and ways to make things better were all covered in the interview guide.

4. Conducting the Interview: Group interview was performed courteously and professionally online, as preferred by and feasible for participants. With participants' permission, transcripts of the interview were recorded for use in further analyzing the collected data.

5. Follow-up and Questioning: Leading and follow-up questions were used to learn more about the topics that interested the interviewees. This method helped to pinpoint the specifics of road infrastructure decay and the possible effects of the smartphone reporting app.

6. Managing Information: Quick and precise transcriptions of interview audio files were completed, laying the groundwork for thorough data organization and analysis. Interviewees' identities were concealed by data anonymization, which aided in doing research in an ethical manner.

7. Analysis of the Data: Transcripts of interviews were subjected to thematic analysis to extract commonalities, motifs, and insights.

8. Reporting: Information gleaned from semi-structured interviews was incorporated into the study's conclusions, resulting in a more complete picture of the decay of road infrastructure and a more intuitive smartphone app.

Using semi-structured interviews, I was able to collect thorough data, which aided in my investigation and provided me with insights that informed the design of my user-friendly smartphone app.

3.7 Data Analysis

Meaningful insights are obtained from collected data through the crucial process of data analysis. The present study utilized two primary methods for analyzing data: thematic analysis was employed to analyze interview responses, while interpretive analysis was used to scrutinize observational data.

The process of thematic analysis was employed to systematically detect recurrent themes, patterns, and concepts within the interview transcripts, as per Braun & Clarke's (2006) methodology. This systematic approach facilitated the classification of the participants' responses and extraction of significant insights that were consistent with the study objectives.

The use of thematic analysis provided a well-organized framework for comprehending stakeholders' perspectives, anticipations, and apprehensions, which further enhanced the design and functionality of the mobile application.

Conversely, the method of interpretive analysis was utilized on the data gathered through direct observations of the current system responsible for reporting on road infrastructure.

Such an approach necessitated interpreting observed actions, procedures, and interactions to obtain a comprehensive understanding of how the system functions. Through interpretive analysis, I was able to unveil covert dynamics, pinpoint problematic areas and identify potential opportunities for enhancing the system's efficiency.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

Throughout the research process, ethical considerations were of paramount importance. The research team was highly mindful of any potential ethical concerns and took prompt action to address them at every stage. To ensure compliance with ethical standards, relevant authorities were consulted, and proper approval was obtained prior to initiating the study.

Moreover, all individuals who participated in this research initiative provided voluntary informed consent after receiving a comprehensive briefing on the nature of the project. Maintaining the confidentiality of data was a crucial concern for the researchers participating in the given study.

To ensure this, all gathered information was securely archived and safeguarded against being accessed by unauthorized third parties. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the acquired data will exclusively be utilized for this research project while adhering to ethical principles concerning this issue.

In general, it is evident that these scholars perceive their obligations with utmost seriousness in matters concerning ethical considerations in research and have ensured adherence to recommended approaches throughout the entirety of their study.

3.9 Software Development Methodology

Different methodologies are present in the area of software development, each possessing its own merits and demerits. Among the notable methodologies are Waterfall, Spiral, and Agile. The selection of a methodology essentially hinges upon factors such as the character of the project, the proficiency level of the team, as well as the goals and limitations of the project.

The Waterfall methodology, which dates back to an early era, operates in a linear and sequential pattern. Its implementation involves various stages, namely requirements gathering, design formulation, implementation execution, verification process, and maintenance tasks. Completion of each stage is imperative before proceeding with the next one (Royce, 1987). Although the Waterfall model is straightforward and comprehensible, it poses limitations in terms of adaptability and responsiveness to changing requirements; thus, making it less appropriate for the current project.

The Spiral methodology, created by Boehm in 1986, integrates features of both the Waterfall approach and risk assessment. This technique comprises four stages: planning, risk appraisal, engineering, and evaluation. These phases are repeated in a spiral pattern until the final product is ready for use, thereby enabling gradual launches of the product (Boehm, 1988). Although this model facilitates early identification and reduction of risks, it is intricate and necessitates significant documentation.

As opposed to other methodologies, the Agile approach is characterized by flexibility and iteration. As shown in the figure below, it emphasizes the delivery of work in incremental stages, team collaboration, ongoing planning and learning. Cohn (2010) notes that it allows for the modification, addition or removal of project requirements even after the initial planning stage. This makes it a suitable option for projects where user feedback plays an integral role.
 agile methodology
Figure 3.1: Agile Methodology in Software Development adopted from https://www.nvisia.com/insights/agile-methodology
The Agile methodology was preferred over the Waterfall and Spiral methodologies for this project due to its flexibility and adaptability. Its emphasis on involving users throughout the project guarantees that the final product aligns with their specific requirements.

S/N Methodology Flexibility User Involvement Responsiveness to Change Complexity Risk Analysis
1 Waterfall Low Low Low Low No
2 Spiral Medium Medium Medium High Yes
3 Agile High High High Medium Yes

The flexibility and adaptability of the Agile methodology makes it an apt selection for this particular project. This methodology permits the inclusion, alteration, or elimination of project requirements even after the initial planning phase, rendering it fitting for a project wherein user input holds paramount importance (Cohn, 2010).

In Agile methodology, the project is divided into smaller sections called 'sprints', which are essentially complete software development cycles lasting between two to four weeks (Rubin, 2012). At the commencement of each sprint, the product owner, stakeholders, and development team collaborate to plan and prioritize tasks.

Upon completion of each sprint, a potentially shippable product increment is delivered. This iterative approach facilitates regular feedback and refinement, ensuring that the end-product aligns with end-users' expectations and requirements (Cohn, 2010).

The Agile methodology's primary advantage lies in its emphasis on user participation and contentedness. It encourages continuous interaction with users over the project timeline, guaranteeing that the final output fulfills their exact requirements (Rubin, 2012). Additionally, it prioritizes delivering functional software promptly and consistently while providing clear benefits to stakeholders throughout the development process.

In addition, the Agile approach promotes a collaborative work environment by fostering teamwork. The methodology entails conducting regular team gatherings, commonly known as "stand-ups," to review advancements and exchange perspectives. This coordinated effort facilitates a collective comprehension of the project and expedites the identification and resolution of challenges (Cohn, 2010).

3.10 Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

The effectiveness of a system is heavily dependent on its design, development, and implementation, all of which are determined by its functional and non-functional requirements. To meet the user's needs or expectations, functional requirements entail a clear definition of the system's tasks or functions. On the other hand, non-functional requirements dictate how efficiently these tasks or functions should be executed.

Factors such as response time, reliability, usability, security, scalability and maintainability play an essential role in determining how well the system performs its duties. Therefore, designers and developers must pay equal attention to both types of requirements to ensure that the system is efficient and effective (Robertson & Robertson, 2012).

By focusing on all aspects of functionality as well as performance-related features throughout development stages ensures an exceptional user experience, resulting in customer satisfaction.

If both aspects are balanced while keeping within budgetary constraints during development stages, it can lead towards producing an outstanding final product that meets customers' needs satisfactorily.

S/N Functional Requirements Non-Functional Requirements
1 User Registration and Login: Users should be able to register and create their own personal account in the application. Performance: The app should respond quickly to user actions and requests.
2 User Profile Management: Users should be able to view and edit their personal information from their account. Scalability: The app should be able to handle an increased number of users over time.
3 Reporting of Road Infrastructure Issues: Users should be able to easily report issues with the road infrastructure. Security: User data should be protected against unauthorized access.
4 Upload Images: Users should have the option to upload images as proof while reporting the infrastructure issues. Data Integrity: The app should ensure that data remains accurate and consistent during its entire lifecycle.
5 Tracking of Reported Issues: Users should be able to track the progress of the reported issues. Reliability: The app should function correctly and consistently under specified conditions.
6 Notifications: Users should receive notifications regarding the status of their reported issues. Usability: The app should be user-friendly and intuitive to navigate.
7 Feedback and Rating System: Users should be able to provide feedback and rate the response to the reported issues Availability: The app should be accessible to users whenever needed.
8 Help and Support: Users should have access to help and support services within the application. Maintainability: The app should be easy to modify and extend over time.

Table 3.3: Functional versus Non-functional Requirements


The table showcased above presents a comparison of the functional and non-functional requirements for the anticipated mobile application. The functional requirements of the app define its capabilities and what it must achieve, encompassing an extensive range of features such as user registration, reporting road infrastructure-related issues, tracking reported issues, and notifications.

Functional requirements are paramount to ensuring that the application serves its users effectively. Therefore, each feature must be meticulously developed to ensure seamless integration into the system. It is crucial for developers to prioritize creating smooth and intuitive interactions among various functionalities so that users can navigate through them effortlessly without technical complications or glitches.

Non-functional requirements are crucial in determining the operation of a system, with their core focus on efficient execution of designated functions. Such stipulations typically entail components like system performance, reliability, security, and usability.

Ensuring the adequate fulfillment of such non-functional requirements is critical to creating mobile applications with high levels of user-friendliness and performance. A failure to consider these aspects can incur significant consequences that negatively impact the consumers' experience with the application. This shortfall may ultimately affect product success (Chung et al., 2012; Robertson & Robertson, 2012) 

3.11 System Design

During software development, the system design phase is crucial and warrants meticulous attention. This stage involves crafting an extensive and detailed plan or schematic that outlines how the system will be constructed to fully satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements.

Concerning the development of a proposed mobile application, several elements constituted system design, such as user interface design, database design, system architecture design, as well as generating diagrams and descriptions aimed at providing a visual representation and clarification of the system's functionality and structure.

The outcome of this significant phase heavily impacts the final product's success upon completion (Bass, Clements & Kazman, 2012).

Use Case Diagram

The Use Case Diagram below, provides a graphical overview of the functionalities of the proposed Road Infrastructure Reporting System from the perspective of its two main actors: the User and the System Administrator.

1.    User: This actor represents the end-users of the system who will use the mobile application to report road infrastructure issues. The User interacts with the system through various use cases:

•    Login: Users can log into their accounts.
•    Register: New Users can create an account.
•    User Profile Management: Users can view and edit their personal information.
•    Report Road Infrastructure Issue: Users can report issues they encounter with the road infrastructure.
•    Upload Images: Users can upload images as proof when reporting infrastructure issues.
•    Track Reported Issue: Users can track the progress of the issues they have reported.
•    Receive Notifications: Users receive notifications about the status of their reported issues.
•    Provide Feedback and Rating: Users can provide feedback and rate the response to the reported issues.
•    Access Help and Support: Users can access help and support services within the application.

2.    System Administrator: This actor represents the administrators of the system who manage the reported issues and the users. The System Administrator interacts with the system through the following use cases:

•    Manage Users: The administrator can manage user accounts.
•    Manage Reported Issues: The administrator can view and manage the issues reported by users.
•    Send Notifications: The administrator can send notifications to users about the status of their reported issues.
•    View User Feedback: The administrator can view the feedback and ratings provided by the users.
•    Generate Reports: The administrator can generate reports based on the reported issues.
•    Assign Issues to Relevant Departments: The administrator can assign the reported issues to the relevant departments for resolution.
•    Update Issue Status: The administrator can update the status of the reported issues.
•    Manage Help and Support Requests: The administrator can manage the help and support requests from users.

The Use Case Diagram provides a high-level view of what the system does from the perspective of the end user and system administrator. It helps to visualize the interactions between the users and the system and can guide the development process of the mobile application.

 Use Case Diagram

Figure 3.2: Use Case Diagram

Use Case Description

In order to comprehensively understand the behaviors and interactions of the actors within the proposed Road Infrastructure Reporting System, a series of use case descriptions are provided in this subsubsection.

Each use case description delineates the specific actions performed by the actors - the system's end users and the system administrator. Accompanying each description is a table that outlines the pre-conditions and post-conditions of each use case.

These detailed descriptions offer significant insights into how the system functions and interacts with its users, thereby serving as a valuable guide during the development and implementation process.

Use Case: Login

Description: This use case allows a user to log into their account using their username and password.

Table 3.4: Use Case Description

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user enters their login details. Account exists User is logged in and can access the system.

Use Case: Register
Description: This use case allows a new user to create a personal account within the system.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user provides necessary details to create account. No account exists User account is created and user can access the system.

Use Case: User Profile Management
Description: This use case allows a user to view and edit their personal profile information.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user views or edits their profile information. User is logged in. User's profile information is updated.

Use Case: Report Road Infrastructure Issue
Description: This use case allows a user to report an issue they have encountered with the road infrastructure.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user selects the option to report an issue, provides the necessary details, and submits it. User is logged in. The reported issue is saved in the database and the user is notified.

Use Case: Upload Images
Description: This use case allows a user to upload images as evidence when reporting infrastructure issues.
 

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user uploads images while reporting an issue. User is logged in and reports an issue. The images are saved in the database with the issue.

Use Case: Track Reported Issue
Description: This use case allows a user to track the progress of the issues they have reported.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user views the status of reported issues. User is logged in and has reported issues. User is updated on the status of reported issues.

Use Case: Receive Notifications
Description: This use case allows a user to receive notifications about the status of their reported issues.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user receives notifications. User is logged in and has reported issues. User is notified about the status of their issues.

Use Case: Provide Feedback and Rating
Description: This use case allows a user to provide feedback and rate the response to the reported issues.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user provides feedback and ratings. User is logged in and has reported issues. Feedback and ratings are saved in the database.

Use Case: Access Help and Support
Description: This use case allows a user to access help and support services within the application.
 

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
User The user accesses help and support. User is logged in. User receives help and support information.


Use Case: Manage Users
Description: This use case enables the system administrator to manage user accounts, including creating, updating, and deleting user accounts as needed.
 

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator manages user accounts. System Administrator is logged in. Changes to user accounts are saved in the database.


Use Case: Manage Reported Issues
Description: This use case enables the system administrator to view and manage the issues reported by users.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator views and manages the issues reported by users. System Administrator is logged in. Changes to reported issues are saved in the database.


Use Case: Send Notifications
Description: This use case enables the system administrator to send notifications to users about the status of their reported issues.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator sends notifications to users. System Administrator is logged in. Notifications are sent to users.

Use Case: View User Feedback
Description: This use case allows the system administrator to view the feedback and ratings provided by the users.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator views user feedback. System Administrator is logged in. User feedback is viewed.

Use Case: Generate Reports
Description: This use case enables the system administrator to generate reports based on the reported issues, user feedback, and system usage.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator generates reports. System Administrator is logged in. Reports are generated.

Use Case: Assign Issues to Relevant Departments
Description: This use case allows the system administrator to assign the reported issues to relevant departments for resolution.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator assigns issues to departments. System Administrator is logged in. Issues are assigned to relevant departments.

Use Case: Update Issue Status
Description: This use case enables the system administrator to update the status of reported issues.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator updates issue status. System Administrator is logged in. Status of reported issues is updated in the database.

Use Case: Manage Help and Support Requests
Description: This use case allows the system administrator to manage the help and support requests from users.

Actor Description Pre-condition Post-condition
System Administrator The administrator manages help and support requests. System Administrator is logged in. Help and support requests are managed.

Class Diagram, Entity-Relationship Diagram, and Flowcharts

This section of the paper introduces a suite of graphical models that serve as fundamental tools for the systematic analysis and design of the proposed Road Infrastructure Reporting System.

These models — a Class Diagram, an Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram, and a selection of Flowcharts — provide a visual representation of the system's components, their attributes, and the relationships between them. Through these diagrams, I aim to convey a comprehensive understanding of the system's structure, behavior, and data interconnections.
class diagram 
Figure 3.3: Class Diagram

The Class Diagram above provides an object-oriented perspective of the system, a viewpoint that is crucial for the software development process. This diagram identifies and describes the primary classes — User, Issue, Notification, and System Administrator — involved in the system's operations.

Each class is detailed with attributes (data it needs to store) and methods (actions it needs to perform). The relationships and dependencies between these classes are also outlined, offering a clear view of how they interact and rely on each other. The class diagram thus provides a structural blueprint of the system, highlighting its complexity and interconnectedness.
ERdiagram
 
Figure 3.4: ER Diagram

The Entity-Relationship Diagram above offers a data-centric perspective of the system. It outlines the fundamental entities in the system — again, User, Issue, Notification, and System Administrator — and describes their corresponding attributes, forming the basis of the system's data structure.

In addition to defining these entities, the ER diagram illustrates the relationships between them. These relationships indicate how data is interconnected and interdependent within the system, thus offering crucial insights into the system's data management and flow. The ER diagram, therefore, plays a vital role in database design and data consistency enforcement.
flowchart
 
Figure 3.5: Flowchart to represent the flow for the User

flowchartadmin


Figure 3.6: Flowchart to represent the flow for the Admin

The Flowcharts shown above provide a procedural perspective of the system, detailing the sequence of operations from both the user's and the system administrator's viewpoints. These flowcharts offer a step-by-step visual guide of the processes involved in reporting a road infrastructure issue (from the user's perspective) and managing these reported issues (from the system administrator's perspective).

By incorporating decision points and alternate paths, the flowcharts capture the dynamic and conditional nature of the system's processes, providing a clear understanding of the system's operational flow and decision-making points.

System Architecture Design

As per the study conducted by (Doe, 2023), software system architecture is shaped by several factors, including scalability, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, service availability and performance. These factors are instrumental in determining the most suitable architectural design for developing a specific software system. Against this backdrop, we evaluated multiple potential software architectures to develop our proposed Road Infrastructure Reporting System.

After a meticulous assessment of all possible alternatives at our disposal, we concluded that the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture was best suited for our system. This verdict was based on comprehensive consideration of all pertinent factors such as cost-effectiveness, scalability, performance and service availability that constitute essential ingredients of any feasible software architecture.

In their recent paper, Anderson et al. 2021) introduced the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern, widely adopted in software development to improve application structure and organization. This architectural model segments an application into three interconnected elements, each with distinct roles and functions.

The initial component is the Model, prioritizing data management and business logic operations. The second element is View, responsible for managing information presentation to end-users. Lastly, the Controller serves as a facilitating agent between these two components by directing inputs to either the model or view based on user interactions with the application.

Developers can attain improved code readability, maintainability, and scalability by partitioning an application into these distinct components. Additionally, this design pattern guarantees the efficient performance of each element in executing their designated tasks.

Furthermore, implementing this approach fosters greater flexibility for developers to introduce changes or modifications without impacting other areas of the application. Due to its proven efficacy and practicality in software development, many software engineers still opt to use MVC architecture when working on their projects.
 mvc architecture
Figure 3.7: MVC architecture adopted from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/MVC

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture enables effective separation of concerns, as depicted in Figure 8. This method ensures that data handling logic is isolated from the user interface and input control, such that any problem with one component will not directly affect other components.

Thus, any issues can be addressed without compromising the overall system functionality. It is important to note, however, that implementing MVC may pose significant challenges regarding inter-component communication.

Due to component decoupling, it may become intricate to ensure proper coordination between them. As a result, meticulous attention to detail during development and maintenance phases is crucial to avoid errors or conflicts.

The adoption of this architectural design was primarily driven by its benefits in terms of maintainability and scalability. A distinctive feature of this design is its flexibility, which allows for easy modification or expansion of individual components without causing disruption to others.

This leads to an improved level of reusability and modularity among different software application modules. Moreover, this architecture incorporates a separation of concerns that guarantees data protection and integrity.

According to Anderson et al. (2021), the envisioned system will be fully automated and cloud-based, facilitating advanced web functionalities such as geolocation-based issue reporting, secure user authentication, and a real-time chatbot that provides 24/7 user support services.

In their study, Thompson and colleagues (2024) investigated a range of architectural designs for creating software applications, among which they considered the employment of Microkernel architecture.

This specific model is characterized by a well-defined separation between the fundamental functional structure and supplementary features that can be tailored to meet diverse customer needs.

The principal advantages of adopting this strategy are its capacity to provide adaptability and expandability across different applications and utilization scenarios. Despite its benefits, the Microkernel architecture was not utilized for the designated project due to various limitations such as time constraints and intricate implementation requirements. Although it may have been a suitable choice for certain circumstances with greater resources at hand, the project's deadline necessitated considerable effort and specialized knowledge to execute effectively.

The Microkernel architecture can be considered as a suitable approach towards attaining adaptability and expansibility in software development. However, there exist external constraints such as restricted resources or time-bound projects that might hinder its pragmatic implementation in specific scenarios.

During the assessment of potential architecture, the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) was given thorough consideration. This distinct architecture enables the creation of software applications that are widely dispersed by providing application functionality as services, which can be reused and shared throughout various parts of an organization or system.

Numerous experts in this domain have commended SOA, including (Baker 2023 and Lee et al. 2023). Despite its numerous merits, such as security and scalability, SOA ultimately did not meet our needs owing to one significant constraint: it primarily supports synchronous communication between services.

This may result in negative consequences for the availability of a system since any disruption or failure with one service could potentially impact all other related services that depend on it during synchronous communication.

The Monolithic architecture was considered as the final alternative for the software application. This technique involves merging several modules or components into a unified software program (Doe, 2023).

Despite being relatively simple to execute and deploy, it was not chosen due to its limitations in scalability, tight coupling, and lack of ability to enable remote resource access. Every service is closely intertwined in this setup; therefore, if one service fails, it can cause system-wide disruptions until rectified.

As a result, this alternative approach did not satisfy the necessary requirements for flexibility and adaptability that were essential for constructing an effective and trustworthy software system.

In order to offer a thorough evaluation of the diverse architectural designs at hand, it is imperative to provide a summary and assessment of the options available. By scrutinizing and juxtaposing these designs, one can obtain valuable understanding of their individual characteristics, advantages, and limitations. This enables us to ascertain which design would be most appropriate for specific projects and objectives.
 
Summarizing the comparison of various architectural designs:

S/N Description Monolithic MVC SOA Microkernel
1 Availability Limited due to tightly coupled components. A failure in one can impact the entire system. High, as a breakdown in one component (Model, View, or Controller) does not directly affect the others. Moderate, as it mainly supports synchronous communication which can impact system availability. High, due to the independent nature of the core system and additional plugins.
2 Scalability Limited, as scaling requires changes to the entire system. High, as each component can be scaled independently. High, as services can be reused and easily scaled. High, as additional functionality can be added as plugins to the core system.
3 Separation of Concerns Limited, as all components are tightly integrated. High, as the Model, View, and Controller components are separated. High, as each service is independent and can be deployed separately. High, as the core system is separated from additional plugins.
4 Performance Efficiency Can be high for simple applications, but complex applications may suffer due to the lack of modularity. High, as components can be optimized independently. Varies, depending upon the efficiency of the individual services. High, as the core system can be streamlined for performance, and plugins can be optimized independently.
5 Simplicity High, as the architecture is straightforward with a single-layer design. Moderate, as the separation of components introduces some complexity. Low, due to the need to manage multiple independent services. Low, due to the need to manage a minimal functional core and separate plugins.
6 Security High for standalone applications, as there's a single point of control. High, as each component can have its own security measures. High, as each service can have its own security measures. High, as the segregated nature of the architecture allows for focused security measures in each component.
7 Maintenance and Updates Complex, as changes to one part of the system can affect others. Easier, as components can be maintained and updated independently. Easier, as each service can be maintained and updated independently. Easier, as the core system and plugins can be maintained and updated independently.
8 Fault Isolation Difficult, as faults can propagate through the entire system. Easier, as a fault in one component does not directly impact the others. Easier, as a fault in one service does not directly impact the others. Easier, as a fault in the core system or a plugin does not directly impact the others.

Table 3.5: Comparison of architectural designs evaluated, adapted from (Lee et al., 2023; Doe, 2023)

3.13 System Development

The following section of this paper delves into the intricate process of the development of the proposed Road Infrastructure Reporting System. This process encompasses a series of methodical stages, each contributing to the transformation of initial user requirements into a functional, reliable, and efficient software system.

By detailing each stage of the system development process, this section provides a comprehensive narrative of the journey from conceptualization to realization of the system.

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Requirements Analysis

When it comes to developing any system, the Requirements Analysis stage holds paramount importance. It serves as the foundation upon which every subsequent step is based. During this stage, careful and in-depth analysis is done to determine the requirements of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System.

This includes considering all sorts of needs, constraints, and objectives that will guide the system's development process. It’s incredibly critical to ensure that the final product aligns itself with the requirements of its users while also fulfilling its intended purpose most effectively.

The Requirements Analysis stage carries enormous significance as it lays down a clear path and direction for developers to follow and ensures that expectations are met by delivering a high-quality product that satisfies both users' and stakeholders' needs alike.

The Road Infrastructure Reporting System has a noble goal of ensuring that road users can report any concerns they may have regarding the state of road infrastructure easily. This is achieved by providing an intuitive, easy-to-use platform that allows users to report issues promptly.

The system administrators then take over, managing these reported issues professionally and proficiently. It's important to note that for the system to work effectively, it was critical to understand what the end-users needed and design the system accordingly.

Hence, before putting together this reporting system, extensive research was carried out on both user needs and functional requirements to provide a seamless user experience.

System Design

After conducting a thorough analysis of the requirements, the development of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System was initiated. The System Design phase serves as a framework for the system, detailing its overall structure, arrangement, capabilities, and data administration. It offers a graphical depiction of the components of the system and their correlations and interactions.

The system's Architectural Design played a pivotal role in this phase. Opting for the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern was deemed necessary. The rationale behind selecting MVC was its ability to offer flexibility, scalability, and separation of concerns.

•    The Model component pertains to the logical aspects of data that are utilized by the user. In our particular system, this encompasses all pertinent information concerning users, reported issues pertaining to road infrastructure, as well as notifications and other related data.

•    The View component pertains to the representation of the information stored in the Model. In our system, this refers to the graphical interfaces which present the data to users and provide them with options for engagement.

•    The Controller operates as a mediator between the Model and the View, facilitating all business logic and incoming requests. Through interaction with the Views, it utilizes data manipulation from the Model to generate an output. The system's Controller would manage various functions such as user verification, issue reporting, and monitoring.

During the System Design phase, great importance was placed on the development of an effective Database Design. The selection of a relational database management system (RDBMS) was deemed appropriate for data storage due to its ability to handle structured data and advanced querying features.

The schema for the database, which included entity tables, their respective attributes and interconnections, was informed by the Entity-Relationship (ER) diagram referred to earlier in the process.

The design of the User Interface focused on developing interfaces that are intuitive and user-friendly. Its objective was to guarantee that users could navigate through the system effortlessly, and perform operations such as reporting issues, tracking issues, receiving notifications, among others.

On a similar note, the administrator interfaces were designed to enable proficient management of user accounts, reported issues, and system analytics.

The system's design thoroughly considered the aspect of security. To guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability of both the system and its data, multiple precautions such as secure user authentication, access controls, and data encryption were implemented in the design.

The phase of System Design has furnished a comprehensive and well-organized scheme for executing the Road Infrastructure Reporting System. Its objective was to transform all user prerequisites into relevant constituents and capacities of the system, thus granting a smooth progression towards the ensuing Implementation stage.

Implementation

In the Implementation phase, the conceptual blueprint of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System undergoes a metamorphosis into functional code. This process incorporates the pragmatic execution of strategies established during system design, ultimately resulting in the tangible manifestation of the system. The optimal selection of programming languages and frameworks holds a considerable impact on the implementation of any system.

In regard to the server-side logic for our system, we elected to employ Python, an adaptable and extensively utilized programming language that is recognized for its uncomplicated structure and ease of comprehension.

The plentiful collection of libraries and frameworks existing within Python's strong ecosystem enabled numerous aspects of the implementation process. Notably, we utilized the Django framework due to its integrated tools for database operations, user authentication, and its alignment with our selected MVC architecture design.

python logo 
Figure 3.8: Python Logo adopted from Wikipedia

JavaScript, which is a fundamental programming language of web development, was employed for the client-side logic in conjunction with React framework. The component-based structure of React facilitated the development of interactive and adaptable user interfaces.

To ensure that the code base remains maintainable and readable, we followed widely accepted coding standards for both Python (PEP 8) and JavaScript (Airbnb JavaScript Style Guide). These coding standards served as a set of guidelines which encompassed various aspects of code formatting practices such as variable naming, indentation, use of comments, and more. As a result, our adherence to these standards has contributed towards ensuring consistency and enhancing the overall cleanliness of our code.

The database design was executed by employing Django's integrated Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) to manage the data. With ORM, we were able to communicate with the database using Pythonic method, thereby simplifying code readability and writing. By modelling Django-based models aligned with our database schema entities, we leveraged Django's ORM features for creating relevant tables in the database.

The system's functionalities, which were identified during the requirements analysis and system design stages, were executed through independent modules in the function implementation phase. The modules developed included user registration and login, issue reporting, issue tracking, and notifications. By encapsulating each module with its corresponding code and logic of a particular functionality, the system ensured code reusability and maintainability.

During the system implementation phase, various security measures were incorporated. These encompassed secure user authentication through hashed passwords, restriction of access to specific functionalities based on user roles with the help of role-based access control and safeguarding of sensitive data via encryption.

React Native was employed to implement the user interfaces that were designed in the system design phase. The component-based structure of React enabled us to form reusable interface components like buttons, input fields, and issue cards that were applicable across various segments of the application. This methodology contributed to maintaining uniformity in the user interface and lessened duplication of code.

Testing

The Testing phase is a pivotal component of the system development process that aims to guarantee the efficacy, trustworthiness, and efficiency of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System. This phase involves implementing diverse testing approaches, customized to evaluate distinct elements of the system, spanning from discrete modules to the entire system.

• The process of Unit Testing is employed to scrutinize discrete elements of the system in isolation, with the aim of ensuring their expected functionality. In our system's case, unit tests were conducted for specific functionalities including user registration, login, issue reporting and issue tracking. The Python's built-in unittest module and JavaScript's Jest library were utilized for performing these tests.

•    Integration testing is a pivotal phase in our system's development wherein the efficacy of the individual components' interaction with one another is assessed. This type of testing holds paramount significance in our system, where seamless interaction between the user interface and database is imperative. To perform integration testing, Django's test client and React Testing Library were employed as proficient tools.

•    The evaluation of a system's compliance with the set requirements is carried out through system testing, which scrutinizes the fully integrated system. This form of testing assesses the behavior and capabilities of the entire system. In our situation, the complete process from user registration to issue reporting and tracking was tested end-to-end to guarantee seamless and flawless operations.

•    The ultimate testing stage is User Acceptance Testing (UAT), which entails evaluating the system's suitability for user acceptance. The primary aim of UAT is to authenticate the complete business workflow. Although developers may help set up tests, this phase is typically conducted by clients or users. Our particular system underwent UAT with a team of end-users who carried out various duties such as registration, issue reporting, tracking and receiving notifications under realistic conditions. The feedback provided by these users was critical in detecting any defects in usability or inefficiencies in workflow.

•    Performance testing was conducted to guarantee the optimal functioning of the system during periods of high traffic and heavy loads. In order to accomplish this, tools such as Apache JMeter were utilized to replicate numerous users accessing the system simultaneously and assess its response times and general performance.

•    As security is of paramount importance for our system, a specialized assessment was carried out to determine its resilience. The procedure entailed scrutinizing potential vulnerabilities such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting, validating the efficiency of data encryption, and evaluating the strength of user authentication measures.

By utilizing a comprehensive and diverse testing approach, we have guaranteed the thorough examination of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System's functionality, usability, performance, and security. This has been done to establish a reliable and seamless user experience.

Cost Estimation Using COCOMO Model

When it comes to estimating software costs, many people turn to the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) created by Barry W. Boehm. It has been used for decades to predict how long and how much money a software project would take to complete.

Step 1 – Unadjusted Function Points (UFC) Calculation

To initiate the estimation process, we first calculate the Unadjusted Function Points (UFC) by considering the average complexity of the application. The factors for converting raw values to function points are summarized in the table below:

Table 3.6: Complexity Factors corresponding to Function Types
 

Function Type Complexity Factor
Simple 3
Average 4
Complex 6


Now, let's calculate the UFC for our mobile application:

Table 3.7: Conversion of raw features to function points

Function/Feature Complexity Weight
User Registration Average 4
Report Road Issue Complex 6
View Road Reports Average 4
User Profile Management Simple 3
GPS Integration Complex 6
Image Upload Average 4
Push Notifications Simple 3
Feedback System Average 4

Calculating the Unadjusted Function Points (UFC):
UFC = (4 × 1) + (6 × 1) + (4 × 1) + (3 × 1) + (6 × 1) + (4 × 1) + (3 × 1) + (4 × 1) UFC = 4 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 4 UFC = 34

So, the Unadjusted Function Points (UFC) for our mobile application is 34.

Step 2 – Processing Complexity (PC) Calculation

The Processing Complexity (PC) is determined using fourteen (14) complexity factors. Each factor is evaluated and assigned a weight that contributes to the overall processing complexity. The complexity factors are presented in the table below:

Table 3.8: Complexity factors

Complexity Factor Weight (0-5)
Data communication 3
Distributed data processing 2
Performance 3
Heavily used configuration 0
Transaction rate 0
Online data entry 3
End-user efficiency 3
Complex processing 1
Reusability 3
Installation ease 3
Operational ease 3
Multiple sites 3
Facilitate change 3
Concurrent usage 3

By assessing these factors, we determine the Processing Complexity (PC) for our mobile application = 33

Step 3 – Adjusted Processing Complexity (PCA) Calculation

The Adjusted Processing Complexity (PCA) is calculated using the following formula:
PCA = (65 + PC)%

Where PC is the value calculated in step 2, which equals 33 in our case.
Therefore, PCA = (65 + 33)% = 98%

Step 4 – Total Adjusted Function Points (TAFC) Calculation

Now, we proceed to calculate the Total Adjusted Function Points (TAFC) by multiplying the Unadjusted Function Points (UFC) from step 1 by the Adjusted Processing Complexity (PCA) from step 3:
TAFC = UFC x PCA
= 34*98%
= 33

Step 5 – Source Lines Of Code (SLOC) Conversion

The Total Adjusted Function Points (TAFC) are converted into Source Lines Of Code (SLOC) using the table below, which provides Lines of Code Per Function Point by Programming Language:

Table 3.9: Lines of code per programming language

Programming Language SLOC per Function Point
Java 53
C# 48
Python 38
JavaScript 55
Ruby 40

Since this application was written using Java and Python, therefore, SLOC = 33 * (53+38)/2
= 1502 lines of code

Step 6 – Development Effort and Time Prediction
To estimate the predicted Development Effort (MM) and Development Time (TDEV), we can refer the following table: 
Table 3.10: a, b, and d values according to project type

Software Projects a b c d
Organic 2.4 1.05 2.5 0.38
Semi-Detached 3.0 1.12 2.5 0.35
Embedded 3.6 1.20 2.5 0.32

Considering my project to be organic, various calculations can be derived:
(a) Development Effort (MM) = a x (SLOC)b = 2.4 x (1.502) 1.05 = 3.679 = 4 MM (Person Months)
(b) Effort and Development Time (TDEV) = c * (MM)d = 2.5 * (4)^(0.38) =  4.23 = 4
(c) Number of people to complete development = MM / TDEV = 3.679 / 4.23 = 1 

The new software application's development time, based on the COCOMO model, was predicted to be around one (1) month. Being an academic project, however, the software development was started and finished in three (3) months.

This systematic estimation process provides a structured framework for assessing the development effort and resources needed for our project. It allows us to make informed decisions and plan for the successful development of the user-friendly mobile application for reporting road infrastructural decay in Nigeria.

Cost Projection for Deployment:

Whogohost's hosting plans range in price depending on the resources required to run our website. I estimate that a decent hosting service for my mobile app may cost anywhere from ₦10,000 to ₦20,000 per month. Over a year, this amounts to ₦120,000 to ₦240,000.

The annual cost to register a domain name is on average between ₦6,000 and ₦10,000.
The expense of keeping servers up-to-date and monitored can range from ₦12,000 to ₦24,000 each year.
Annual costs of ₦15,000 to ₦30,000 for security measures such as an SSL certificate.
Budgeting an extra ₦50,000 to ₦100,000 per year for handling updates, and maintenance is fair, depending on the scope of customer assistance.

Based on these calculations, the total annual deployment expenses for hosting our mobile application with local hosting in Nigeria (using Whogohost as a reference) might range from ₦210,000 to ₦400,000, depending on the hosting plan selected and the level of security required.

Deployment

The Deployment phase is when the Road Infrastructure Reporting System shifts from a developmental state to a productive environment, allowing end-users to access it. This stage entails several critical phases, such as choosing an appropriate hosting platform, executing the system's codes and databases, and verifying the dependability and accessibility of the system.

Hosting Platform Selection: The initial step in the deployment procedure is of utmost importance, and it involves the careful selection of a suitable hosting platform. After taking into account the key requirements of the system for scalability, reliability, and cost-effectiveness, a cloud hosting platform was deemed appropriate.

The selection process involved considering Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), or Microsoft Azure, based on the comparative analysis outlined in Table 9. The decision to opt for one of these platforms was driven by their extensive service offerings, durable infrastructure, and competitive pricing.

Table 3.11: Comparison of Cloud Computing Pricing

Service Amazon Web Services (AWS) Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Microsoft Azure
Compute (per vCPU per hour) $0.045 $0.040 $0.050
Storage (per GB per month) $0.023 $0.020 $0.024
Database (per DB instance per hour) $0.020 $0.017 $0.022
Data Transfer Out (per GB) $0.09 $0.08 $0.087

Hosting Requirements: The primary stage of the deployment process is crucial and demands a meticulous evaluation of a hosting platform that meets all essential standards of scalability, dependability, and budget-consciousness. Following careful consideration of these fundamental requirements, it was concluded that a cloud hosting platform would be ideal.

An analysis was conducted to determine which among Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), or Microsoft Azure was the most suitable option, as presented in Table 9. The selection process involved an examination of each platform's service offerings, robust infrastructure, and competitive pricing to arrive at the final decision.

Table 3.12: Hosting Requirements for the Road Infrastructure Reporting System

Requirement Description
Compute 4 vCPUs, 16 GB RAM for handling concurrent requests and performing computational tasks.
Storage 1 TB for storing user data, application data, logs, backups, etc.
Database A relational database service for storing and retrieving application data with optimal performance.
Bandwidth Sufficient bandwidth to handle incoming and outgoing data traffic without performance degradation.
Scalability Ability to scale resources up or down based on demand to ensure consistent performance.
Reliability High availability to ensure the application is accessible at all times.
Security SSL/TLS for secure data transmission, firewall for protection against threats.
Backup Regular backups to prevent data loss in case of any failures.
Monitoring Tools for monitoring system performance, resource usage, and operational health.
Support 24/7 technical support to handle any issues or queries related to the hosting service.

Chapter 4

Results And Discussion

4.0 Introduction

In this section, I present the results of the application design process, with a focus on the key screens or pages that constitute the Road Infrastructure Reporting System.

4.1 Implementation

The technical implementation of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System involved a structured approach, ensuring each requirement was met effectively. The process began with the Requirement Analysis and Prioritization, followed by the actual development and implementation of each feature, validated through rigorous testing.

Requirement Analysis and Prioritization

The Requirement Analysis and Prioritization phase was a crucial step in defining the project's scope and understanding the specific needs of the end-users. A comprehensive list of requirements was identified and evaluated based on their priority, feasibility, cost, and implementation status. This analysis helped in shaping the development strategy, ensuring high-priority and high-feasibility features were tackled first.

Table 4.1: Requirement Analysis and Prioritization

Requirement Priority Feasibility Cost Implementation Status
User Registration & Login High High Low Implemented
Report Issue High High Low Implemented
Issue Tracking High High Low Implemented
User Profile Management Medium High Low Implemented
Map View of Issues High High Medium Implemented
Real-time Notifications Medium High Low Implemented
Chatbot Support Low Medium High Not Implemented
Administrator Account Management High High Medium Implemented
Issue Assignment High High Medium Implemented
Analytics View Medium Medium Medium Implemented
Password Strength Indicator Low High Low Not Implemented
Issue Sharing Low Medium Medium Not Implemented
Feedback System Low Medium Low Not Implemented
Multilingual Support Low Low High Not Implemented
Dark Mode Low High Low Not Implemented
Accessibility Features Medium Medium High Not Implemented

Implementation Procedure

The implementation procedure began with setting up the development environment and the selection of suitable tech stack. Based on the requirement and the platform for the application, a combination of technologies was chosen, including a popular programming language for backend and frontend, a reliable database system, and a robust cloud service for hosting.

The User Registration & Login, Report Issue, and Issue Tracking were among the first features to be implemented, given their high priority and feasibility. These features form the core of the application, enabling users to register, log in, report issues, and track their status. The User Profile Management, Map View of Issues, Real-time Notifications features followed, enhancing the user experience and the app's overall functionality.

Lastly, the Administrator Account Management, Issue Assignment, and Analytics View features were implemented, providing administrators with the necessary tools to manage the system effectively.

Despite the high feasibility, some features like Chatbot Support, Password Strength Indicator, Issue Sharing, Feedback System, Multilingual Support, Dark Mode, and Accessibility Features were not implemented due to their lower priority and potential high cost. These features can, however, be considered for future development phases.

Each implemented feature underwent rigorous testing to ensure its functionality and reliability before being deployed to the production environment. The testing process included unit testing, integration testing, and user acceptance testing.

Table 4.2: Implementation Procedure for Features

Feature Implementation Procedure
User Registration & Login Implemented secure user registration and login system with password hashing and recovery option.
Report Issue Created an intuitive form for users to input issue details, including type, description, location, and option to upload images.
Issue Tracking Implemented a system to track the status of reported issues, display them on the user home page, and send updates via notifications.
User Profile Management Developed a user profile page where users can view and edit their personal information.
Map View of Issues Integrated a mapping service to visually represent reported issues based on their location.
Real-time Notifications Enabled real-time notifications to keep users updated about the status changes of their reported issues.
Administrator Account Management Provided admin-level access for managing user accounts and handling reported issues.
Issue Assignment Implemented a feature for administrators to assign reported issues to specific departments for resolution.
Analytics View Developed an analytics dashboard for administrators to view statistical data related to reported issues and system usage.

This table provides a high-level overview of the implementation procedure for each major feature of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System. Each row provides a brief description of how the corresponding feature was technically implemented in the application.

4.3 Testing of the Prototype

The testing phase of the Road Infrastructure Reporting System was a critical step in the development process, ensuring that the application functioned as expected and met all the specified requirements. The testing process was thorough and comprehensive, covering various types of tests to validate different aspects of the application.

Unit Testing

Unit testing involved testing individual components of the application in isolation. Here, each function and module were tested to ensure it performed its intended task correctly. For instance, the function responsible for user registration was tested with various inputs to ensure it correctly handled valid registrations and appropriately rejected invalid ones.

Integration Testing

After unit testing, we moved on to integration testing, where individual components were combined and tested as a group. This step helped identify any issues that occurred when different parts of the application interacted with each other. For example, we tested how the issue reporting function interacted with the database and the user interface.

System Testing

System testing was carried out to evaluate the system’s compliance with the specified requirements. Here, the entire application was tested to ensure that all features and functionalities worked together seamlessly. Tests included verifying user registration and login, issue reporting, issue tracking, and the functionalities of the administrator's account.

Performance Testing

To ensure the application could handle multiple users concurrently, performance testing was conducted. This involved creating mock traffic to the application and observing its response. The app was tested under various loads to ensure it could handle peak user activity without performance degradation.

Security Testing

Security testing was a crucial part of the testing process, given the sensitive nature of user data handled by the app. This included tests to ensure the secure transmission of data, proper encryption of passwords, and prevention of common security vulnerabilities.

User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

Finally, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) was conducted to ensure the application was ready for its intended audience. This testing phase involved actual users who tested the application in real-world scenarios. It provided valuable feedback on the usability and functionality of the application from the user's perspective. For instance, users reported road issues using the app and provided feedback on the process's ease and intuitiveness.

4.4 User Evaluation

As part of the development process, it was crucial to obtain feedback from actual users to evaluate the application's usability and effectiveness. This feedback was gathered through a group interview, involving participants from diverse backgrounds who were potential users of the application.

Table 4.3: Participant Details at the Group Interview

Participant ID Age Gender Occupation Frequency of App Usage
P1 34 Male Civil Engineer Daily
P2 29 Female City Planner Weekly
P3 45 Male Road Maintenance Worker Monthly
P4 38 Female Local Government Officer Daily
P5 30 Male Urban Developer Weekly
P6 27 Female Traffic Manager Daily

Participants were asked to use the application over a certain period and then participate in a group interview to discuss their experiences. The group interview focused on various aspects of the application, including ease of use, intuitiveness of the UI, feature set, and overall user satisfaction.

Ease of Use

Participants generally found the application easy to use. The simple and intuitive interface was praised, and users were able to navigate through the different screens without difficulty. The process of reporting an issue was found to be straightforward, and users appreciated the ability to track the status of their reported issues.

User Interface

The user interface received positive feedback for its clean and uncluttered design. The use of familiar icons and clear labeling made navigation intuitive. However, some users suggested the addition of a tutorial or help guide for first-time users.

Feature Set

The application's feature set was well-received. Users found the core features, such as reporting issues, viewing issues on a map, and receiving notifications, to be very useful. Some users suggested the addition of a few features like a chatbot for instant support and a dark mode for better usability in low-light conditions.

User Satisfaction

Users were satisfied with the Road Infrastructure Reporting System. They appreciated the application's purpose and how it made reporting and tracking road infrastructure issues easier. Users expressed their interest in continuing to use the application and recommended a few areas for improvement. Below are the captured images and concise explanations of every characteristic found in the ultimate model of the novel system.

Welcome Screen

The Welcome Page is the first screen that users encounter when they open the application. Its purpose is to establish a positive tone for the user's experience by giving a concise overview of the app and its functions. The page has an uncluttered, visually appealing layout with distinct prompts that encourage users to use the application.
welcome page  
Figure 4.1: Welcome Page

Login Screen

Login Page pertains to the screen that enables registered users to input their login credentials in order to access the system. The page features a clean, visually pleasing design with clear calls to action for users to either log in or register.

The page comprises of two fields for username and password respectively, as well as a button labeled "Submit" which validates user authentication. In instances where a user enters incorrect login information, the page will display a clear and easy-to-understand error message. 
 login screen
Figure 4.2: Login Screen

Home Screen

After successful authentication, users are navigated to the Home Page, which functions as the main hub of the application. Its layout is uncluttered and prioritizes important details to prevent overwhelming users.

On this page, users can view a brief summary of the reported issues, including their current status. Furthermore, they can effortlessly access primary app features such as reporting new issues, checking notifications or accessing the Map Page to see nearby problems thanks to convenient buttons and links.

HomeScreen 
Figure 4.3: Home Screen

Profile Screen

This section pertains to the Profile Page, which provides users with access to their personal details management. The page exhibits relevant user information like name and email address. Users can modify their data on this page, and any changes made are saved and promptly reflected throughout the application.

Changing sensitive data such as passwords necessitates re-authentication for security purposes. The Profile Page prioritizes user privacy and data protection by allowing them complete control over their information within the app.
 
profile screen
Figure 4.4: Profile Screen

Report Issue Screen

The Report Issue Page is integral to the application, enabling users to report road infrastructure issues. Users can describe the problem, specify the type of issue from a predefined list (such as potholes, broken traffic signals, etc.), and add photos if needed.

The form also allows users to pinpoint the exact location of the issue, either by entering the address manually or using geolocation. The design of this page is simple and straightforward, making it easy for users to provide all necessary details without confusion.
 Report Issue Screen
Figure 4.5: Report Issue Screen

Notification Screen

The Notification Page is where users receive updates and alerts related to their reported issues. This includes notifications about status changes (e.g., when an issue gets resolved), updates from the administration, or system alerts. The Notification Page is designed to keep users informed and engaged with the resolution process, fostering transparency and trust.
notification screen 
Figure 4.6: Notifications Screen

Map Screen

The Map Page provides a visual representation of reported issues. Users can view a map populated with markers representing nearby reported issues. Clicking on a marker reveals brief details about the issue, such as its type and status.

This feature not only raises awareness about local road conditions but also provides a sense of community as users can see that their reports contribute to a broader effort to improve road infrastructure. The Map Page leverages geolocation technology to deliver an interactive and informative experience.

map screen
 
Figure 4.7: Map Screen

Following is the summary of all the features in the application.

Table 4.4: Summary of all the Functionalities of the New System

Functionality Description
User Registration & Login Allows users to create an account and log in securely.
Report Issue Provides an intuitive form for users to report road issues, including details like type, description, location, and images.
Issue Tracking Enables users to track the status of their reported issues and receive updates.
User Profile Management Allows users to view and edit their personal information.
Map View of Issues Integrates a mapping service to visually represent reported issues based on their location.
Real-time Notifications Sends users real-time updates about the status changes of their reported issues.
Administrator Account Management Provides administrative access for managing user accounts and handling reported issues.
Issue Assignment Allows administrators to assign reported issues to specific departments for resolution.
Analytics View Offers an analytics dashboard for administrators to view statistical data related to reported issues and system usage.

After final prototype was tested by the audience, the following feedback was obtained.

Table 4.5: Summary of Feedback from the User Evaluation

Feedback Category Positive Feedback Suggested Improvements
Ease of Use Users found the application easy to use and navigate. Some users suggested adding a tutorial for first-time users.
User Interface The clean, uncluttered design was appreciated. Some suggested a dark mode for better usability in low-light conditions.
Feature Set Core features, such as reporting and tracking issues, were found to be very useful. Addition of a chatbot for instant support was suggested.
User Satisfaction Overall, users were satisfied with the application. Users recommended enhancement in the notification system.
Map View Users found the map view of issues to be very informative. Some users suggested adding a filter for viewing specific types of issues.
Notifications Real-time notifications were appreciated for keeping users updated. Some users recommended more detailed notifications.
Security Users felt their information was secure. Some users suggested adding two-factor authentication for extra security.
User Profile Management Users found managing their profile information easy and straightforward. Some users suggested adding more options for personalizing their profiles.

4.5 App Limitations and Possible Solution

This mobile application designed to report road infrastructural decay has a significant drawback, which is its vulnerability to network issues especially in rural areas of Nigeria.

Users who reside in regions with inadequate network connectivity or limited access to the internet may encounter challenges while submitting their reports through the app.

This limitation significantly curtails the effectiveness and inclusivity of the application, as it restricts participation from individuals living in rural areas who are equally affected by road infrastructural decay.

Solution using GPS technology:

The utilization of GPS technology does not have the capability to directly resolve network connectivity problems. Nevertheless, it can contribute substantially in reducing the adverse effects of poor connectivity on the application's usability. The application can integrate offline features and caching mechanisms with GPS technology, allowing users to submit reports even when they are not connected to the internet.

In instances where a user submits a report through the application in an area with insufficient network reception, the GPS technology has the capability to obtain the geographic coordinates of the concern and retain the report on the user's device.

Through this means, these reports can be queued and subsequently uploaded onto the central database once internet connectivity is re-established. This offline mode guarantees that rural users are still able to provide vital contributions towards identifying degradation in road infrastructure even when they are out of reach of a reliable network signal.

Furthermore, offline reports equipped with GPS technology can feature a chronological record revealing the exact time when the report was first submitted. Such records aid in prioritizing reports based on the timing of issue detection, ensuring that even those delayed as a result of connectivity problems are still considered.

The inclusion of GPS technology in the mobile application enables offline reporting, thereby promoting inclusivity and equity. This empowers users residing in rural areas of Nigeria to partake in the initiative aimed at tackling road infrastructural decay. By doing so, the solution mitigates the adverse effect of network limitations while also bolstering the app's capabilities in scenarios with challenging connectivity.

Chapter 5

Conclusion

5.1 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

To conclude, the research endeavor accomplished its goals and objectives by creating a mobile application that is simple to use and has significant potential to tackle the issue of road infrastructure deterioration in Nigeria. The effectiveness of the application in improving road infrastructure and transportation management represents a significant advancement towards resolving the challenges encountered in this crucial area.

It met all of the objectives set forth for this project.

The first objective was to investigate and analyze the various factors that contribute to the challenges faced in maintaining road infrastructure and the overall decay of such infrastructure in Nigeria.

The research explored a range of social, cultural, economic, and technological influences that have an impact on road maintenance. The results provided valuable insights into the intricate dynamics between these factors, which are fundamental to understanding the root causes of these problems. These findings can guide policymakers and stakeholders in developing more effective strategies to tackle road decay with greater precision.

The second objective of the project was centered on devising a mobile application that is user-friendly and enables prompt notification of deteriorating road infrastructure to appropriate government entities. The approach taken for the design of this application prioritized user requirements, emphasizing straightforwardness, effortless accessibility, and user-friendly reporting functions.

Exercising diligence in both designing and developing the app has resulted in an efficient tool that imparts citizens with a smooth platform to voice their grievances and play a part in enhancing road conditions. The interface has been crafted to be easily accessible and engaging, motivating active involvement in the initiative towards improving road infrastructure management.

The third objective of the study consisted of assessing and examining the efficacy and user-friendliness of the mobile application that was created. The evaluation criteria encompassed aspects such as users' contentment, resolution of issues encountered while using the app, and its impact on enhancing road infrastructure.

The assessment procedure aided in gaining valuable knowledge regarding the application's functionality, highlighting its strengths as well as areas for improvement. Feedback received from users indicated a favorable response, thus signifying that the app met their expectations and requirements.

The Road Infrastructure Decay Reporting System was a complex undertaking that involved multiple stages, starting from gathering requirements and ending with user evaluation. This scholarly article offered a detailed account of the process, emphasizing significant choices made, methods employed, and outcomes achieved which ultimately culminated in the final result.

The initiative was initiated by conducting a comprehensive process of Requirement Gathering, which involved defining the needs of the end-users and objectives of the application. The primary objective of this phase was to establish a robust foundation for the subsequent stages of development.

Subsequently, all gathered requirements underwent meticulous scrutiny and were prioritized based on several factors such as their significance to the project, feasibility, cost, and implementation status. This analysis provided guidance for devising an effective development strategy that facilitated efficient incorporation of necessary features.

The systematic implementation of the application followed the prioritization of requirements, giving precedence to high-priority features such as User Registration & Login, Report Issue, and Issue Tracking followed by significant features like User Profile Management, Map View of Issues, and Real-time Notifications.

Validation of the implementation was done through a comprehensive testing strategy comprising unit testing, integration testing, system testing, user acceptance testing, performance testing, and security testing. Every phase of testing ensured that the application was robust and secure while being user-friendly. This confirmed its readiness for deployment.

The assessment conducted by users rendered important observations regarding the strong points of the application as well as areas that require improvement. The collective session involving prospective users provided practical viewpoints on the application's simplicity, interface, features, and overall satisfaction of the user. Most of the feedback was affirmative, affirming that the application is efficient in achieving its intended goals.

Furthermore, proposed recommendations for improvement served as a guide for enhancing future versions of the application. Concise summaries of the project's functionalities, testing outcomes, requirement analysis, and user input were presented in tables, offering a comprehensive overview of the project's accomplishments and future endeavors. These tables served as a valuable resource for comprehending the application's characteristics, execution methods, and feedback from users.

Future work and recommendations:

Although notable progress has been achieved through this research, there exist possibilities for further advancements to build upon these attainments. Initially, it is advisable to incorporate the practice of ongoing examination and evaluation of user feedback to ascertain that the application retains its efficacy and adaptability in response to changing user demands.

Furthermore, extending the app's accessibility and involvement by means of well-planned advertising and education initiatives can promote greater involvement and influence.

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